In order to determine the probability of a random match between the DNA profile obtained from a crime scene and that of an accused suspect, a reliable estimation of allele and genotype frequencies in relevant population (s) are needed (Chakraborty 1992). Hence population data have been gathered in numerous studies and examined for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage equilibrium. Once a specific database has been deemed 'reliable' following allele and locus independence tests the allele frequencies are then used to estimate a specific DNA profile's frequency as will be described in Chapter 21.


1. Should population data be removed from use in genotype frequency estimations if samples are not found to be in HWE based on independence testing?

2. How far will results be off if the wrong ethnic/racial database is used or a database where allele frequencies are not in HWE?

3. Can population databases be combined? If so, what tests are needed before data can be deemed reliable to combine with another set?


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