Contents

FOREWORD vii

INTRODUCTION ix

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xv

ABOUT THE AUTHOR xvi

CHAPTER 1 OVERVIEW AND HISTORY OF DNA TYPING 1

BIOLOGY

2 DNA BIOLOGY REVIEW 17

3 SAMPLE COLLECTION, DNA EXTRACTION AND DNA BB QUANTITATION

4 THE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (DNA AMPLIFICATION) SB

5 COMMONLY USED SHORT TANDEM REPEAT MARKERS SB AND COMMERCIAL KITS

6 BIOLOGY OF STRs: STUTTER PRODUCTS, NON-TEMPLATE 12B ADDITION, MICROVARIANTS, NULL ALLELES AND

MUTATION RATES

7 FORENSIC ISSUES: DEGRADED DNA, PCR INHIBITION, 14B CONTAMINATION, MIXED SAMPLES AND LOW COPY NUMBER

8 SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS AND OTHER 1S1 BI-ALLELIC MARKERS

9 Y CHROMOSOME DNA TESTING 201

10 MITOCHONDRIAL DNA ANALYSIS 241

11 NON-HUMAN DNA TESTING AND MICROBIAL FORENSICS 299

TECHNOLOGY

12 DNA SEPARATION METHODS: SLAB GEL AND CAPILLARY B1B ELECTROPHORESIS

13 DNA DETECTION METHODS: FLUORESCENT DYES AND B2B SILVER-STAINING

14 INSTRUMENTATION FOR STR TYPING: ABI 310, ABI 3100, B4B FMBIO SYSTEMS

15 STR GENOTYPING ISSUES B7B

16 LABORATORY VALIDATION 389

17 NEW TECHNOLOGIES, AUTOMATION, AND EXPERT SYSTEMS 413

18 COMBINED DNA INDEX SYSTEM (CODIS) AND THE USE OF 435 DNA DATABASES

GENETICS

19 BASIC GENETIC PRINCIPLES, STATISTICS, AND PROBABILITY 455

20 STR POPULATION DATABASE ANALYSES 473

21 PROFILE FREQUENCY ESTIMATES, LIKELIHOOD RATIOS, AND 497 SOURCE ATTRIBUTION

22 APPROACHES TO STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF MIXTURES AND 519 DEGRADED DNA

23 KINSHIP AND PARENTAGE TESTING 529

BIOLOGY, TECHNOLOGY, AND GENETICS

24 MASS DISASTER DNA VICTIM IDENTIFICATION 541

APPENDIX I REPORTED STR ALLELES: SIZES AND SEQUENCES 561

II U.S. POPULATION DATA - STR ALLELE FREQUENCIES 577

III SUPPLIERS OF DNA ANALYSIS EQUIPMENT, PRODUCTS, 585 OR SERVICES

IV DNA ADVISORY BOARD QUALITY ASSURANCE STANDARDS 593

V DAB RECOMMENDATIONS ON STATISTICS 613

VI NRC II RECOMMENDATIONS 623

VII EXAMPLE DNA CASES 627

AUTHOR INDEX 633

SUBJECT INDEX 647

High-profile cases and other interesting information are included as D.N.A. Boxes (Data, Notes, and Applications) scattered throughout the book in the chapter pertaining to a particular subject.

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Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.

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