Dna Sample Sources

DNA is present in every nucleated cell and is therefore present in biological materials left at crime scenes. DNA has been successfully isolated and analyzed from a variety of biological materials. Introduction of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has extended the range of possible DNA samples that can be successfully analyzed because many copies are made of the DNA markers to be examined (see Chapter 4). Some of the biological materials that have been tested with PCR-based DNA typing method are included in Table 3.1 (see also D.N.A. Box 3.1). The most common materials tested in forensic laboratories are blood and semen or bloodstains and semen stains.

Stuttering Simple Techniques to Help Control Your Stutter

Stuttering Simple Techniques to Help Control Your Stutter

Discover Simple Techniques to Help Control Your Stutter. Stuttering is annoying and embarrassing. If you or a member of your family stutters, you already know the impact it can have on your everyday life. Stuttering interferes with communication, and can make social situations very difficult. It can even be harmful to your school or business life.

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