three years in August or September). A number of other regional meetings are also held each year.
Several thorough developmental validation papers have been published that discuss results obtained from conducting the studies listed above for the AmpFlSTR® STR kits (Wallin et al. 1998, Holt et al. 2002), the PowerPlex® 1.1/amelogenin STR multiplex system (Micka et al. 1999), and the PowerPlex® 16 kit (Krenke et al. 2002). In addition, validation studies have been published on the Forensic Science Service quadruplex (Lygo et al. 1994) and Second Generation Multiplex (Sparkes et al. 1996) as well as multiplex systems developed by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (Fregeau et al. 1999). Table 16.1 lists a number of validation studies that have been conducted with STR typing kits. In all cases, multiplex STR profiling systems were found to yield reliable, reproducible, and robust results.
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