The random match probability is usually equated with the population frequency of the DNA profile of interest. This population frequency is estimated based on allele frequencies from various population databases. Statistical approaches for determining profile frequency estimates will be presented in more detail in Chapter 21.
Significant deviations from independence are rare with the 13 CODIS STRs commonly used for forensic DNA typing because all are located on separate chromosomes with the exception of CSF1PO and D5S818, which occur on the long arm of chromosome 5 (see Chapter 5). If independence can be demonstrated between alleles and between loci, then the product rule can be invoked to produce the extremely rare random match probabilities reported in forensic cases, such as 1 in 5 trillion or greater.
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This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.