Genetic Genealogy With Mitochondrial

As mentioned at the end of the previous chapter, scientists have been using DNA for several decades to try to understand human migration patterns (Relethford 2001, Relethford 2003). Samples have been gathered from a number of individuals around the world often from isolated populations such as the Australian aborigines. The uniparental inheritance of mtDNA and Y chromosome markers (see Chapter 9) makes it easier to trace ancestral lineages through multiple generations since the shuffling effects of recombination that promotes the diversity of autosomal DNA profiles is not present in haploid systems. The ability to successfully obtain mtDNA results from ancient bones is also useful, such as has been demonstrated with the recovery of HV1 and HV2 sequences from Neanderthal remains that are thousands of years old (Krings et al. 1997, 1999).

While the same DNA markers are being used in these types of studies as in forensic DNA typing, the sample groups are often analyzed differently since direct comparisons cannot usually be made. Rather the DNA information obtained is extrapolated over many generations between the various populations tested. There is not a one-to-one unique match being made between a 'suspect' and 'evidence.' Instead scientists are often guessing at what genetic signatures existed in the past based on various assumptions - with a bit of 'storytelling' mixed in (see Goldstein and Chikhi 2002). However, large amounts of data are being collected in an attempt to better understand our heritage and travels as a human species (e.g., Helgason et al. 2003). Forensic DNA testing, disease diagnostics and anthropological and genealogical research efforts will all continue to be benefited by growth and developments in mitochondrial DNA analysis.

REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL READING

Allard, M.W., Miller, K., Wilson, M., Monson, K. and Budowle, B. (2002) Journal of Forensic

Sciences, 47, 1215-1223.

Allard, M.W., Wilson, M.R., Monson, K.L. and Budowle, B. (2004) Legal Medicine,

Allen, M., Engstrom, A.S., Meyers, S., Handt, O., Saldeen, T., von Haeseler, A., Paabo, S. and Gyllensten, U. (1998) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 43, 453-464.

Alonso, A., Martin, P., Albarran, C., Garcia, O. and Sancho, M. (1996) Electrophoresis, 17, 1299-1301.

Alonso, A., Salas, A., Albarran, C., Arroyo, E., Castro, A., Crespillo, M., di Lonardo, A.M., Lareu, M.V., Cubria, C.L., Soto, M.L., Lorente, J.A., Semper, M.M., Palacio, A., Paredes, M., Pereira, L., Lezaun, A.P., Brito, J.P., Sala, A., Vide, M.C., Whittle, M., Yunis, J.J. and Gomez, J. (2002) Forensic Science International, 125, 1-7.

Anderson, S., Bankier, A.T., Barrell, B.G., de Bruijn, M.H.L., Coulson, A.R., Drouin, J., Eperon, I.C., Nierlich, D.P., Roe, B.A., Sanger, F., Schreier, P.H., Smith, A.J.H., Staden, R. and Young, I.G. (1981) Nature, 290, 457-465.

Andreasson, H., Asp, A., Alderborn, A., Gyllensten, U. and Allen, M. (2002) Biotechniques, 32, 124-133.

Andreasson, H., Gyllensten, U. and Allen, M. (2002) Biotechniques, 33, 402-411.

Andrews, R.M., Kubacka, I., Chinnery, P.F., Lightowlers, R.N., Turnbull, D.M. and Howell, N. (1999) Nature Genetics, 23, 147.

Attimonelli, M., Altamura, N., Benne, R., Brennicke, A., Cooper, J.M., D'Elia, D.,

Montalvo, A., Pinto, B., De Robertis, M., Golik, P., Knoop, V., Lanave, C., Lazowska, J., Licciulli, F., Malladi, B.S., Memeo, F., Monnerot, M., Pasimeni, R., Pilbout, S., Schapira, A.H., Sloof, P. and Saccone, C. (2000) Nucleic Acids Research, 28, 148-152.

Awadalla, P., Eyre-Walker, A. and Smith, J. M. (1999) Science, 286, 2524-2525.

Bandelt, H.J., Lahermo, P., Richards, M. and Macaulay, V. (2001) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 115, 64-69.

Bandelt, H.J., Quintana-Murci, L., Salas, A. and Macaulay, V. (2002) American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, 1150-1160.

Barreto, G., Vago, A.R., Ginther, C., Simpson, A.J.G. and Pena, S.D.J. (1996) American Journal of Human Genetics, 58, 609-616.

Bendall, K. E. and Sykes, B. C. (1995) American Journal of Human Genetics, 57, 248-256.

Bendall, K. E., Macaulay, V. A., Baker, J. R. and Sykes, B. C. (1996) American Journal of Human Genetics, 59, 1276-1287.

Bever, R.A., Basalyga, F. and Thomas, J. (2003) Resolution of mixtures by cloning of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Proceedings of the Fourteenth International Symposium on Human Identification. Available online at : http://www.promega.com/ geneticidproc/ussymp14proc/oralpresentations/Bever.pdf.

Bini, C., Ceccardi, S., Luiselli, D., Ferri, G., Pelotti, S., Colalongo, C., Falconi, M. and Pappalardo, G. (2003) Forensic Science International, 135, 48-52.

Bodenteich, A., Mitchell, L. G., Polymeropoulos, M. H. and Merril, C. R. (1992) Human Molecular Genetics, 1, 140.

Brandstätter, A. and Parson, W. (2003) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 117, 180-184.

Brandstätter, A., Parsons, T. J. and Parson, W. (2003) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 117, 291-298.

Brown, W. M., George, M., Jr. and Wilson, A. C. (1979) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 76, 1967-1971.

Budowle, B., Adams, D.E., Comey, C.C. and Merrill, C.R. (1990) Mitochondrial DNA - a possible genetic material suitable for forensic analysis. In Lee, H.C. and Gaensslen, R.E. (eds) Advances in Forensic Sciences. Chicago, Illinois: Year Book Medical Publishers, p. 76-97.

Budowle, B., Wilson, M.R., DiZinno, J.A., Stauffer, C., Fasano, M.A., Holland, M.M. and Monson, K.L. (1999) Forensic Science International, 103, 23-35.

Budowle, B., Allard, M.W. and Wilson, M.R. (2002a) Forensic Science International, 126, 30-33.

Budowle, B., Allard, M.W., Fisher, C.L., Isenberg, A.R., Monson, K.L., Stewart, J.E., Wilson, M.R. and Miller, K.W. (2002b) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 116, 212-215.

Budowle, B., Allard, M.W., Wilson, M.R. and Chakraborty, R. (2003) Annual Reviews in Genomics and Human Genetics, 4, 119-141.

Budowle, B., Planz, J.V., Campbell, R.S. and Eisenberg, A.J. (2004) Forensic Science Review 16, 21-36.

Butler, J.M., Wilson, M.R. and Reeder, D.J. (1998a) Electrophoresis, 19, 119-124.

Butler, J.M. and Levin, B.C. (1998b) Trends in Biotechnology, 16, 158-162.

Calloway, C.D., Reynolds, R.L., Herrin, G.L., Jr. and Anderson, W.W. (2000) American Journal of Human Genetics, 66, 1384-1397.

Carracedo, A., D'Aloja, E., Dupuy, B., Jangblad, A., Karjalainen, M., Lambert, C., Parson, W., Pfeiffer, H., Pfitzinger, H., Sabatier, M., Syndercombe-Court, D. and Vide, C. (1998) Forensic Science International, 97, 165-170.

Carracedo, A., Bar, W., Lincoln, P., Mayr, W., Morling, N., Olaisen, B., Schneider, P., Budowle, B., Brinkmann, B., Gill, P., Holland, M., Tully, G. and Wilson, M. (2000) Forensic Science International, 110, 79-85.

Chee, M., Yang, R., Hubbell, E., Berno, A., Huang, X.C., Stern, D., Winkler, J., Lockhart, D.J., Morris, M.S. and Fodor, S.P. (1996) Science, 274, 610-614.

Chen, X., Prosser, R., Simonetti, S., Sadlock, J., Jagiello, G. and Schon, E. A. (1995) American Journal of Human Genetics, 57, 239-247.

Coble, M.D. (2004) The identification of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the entire mitochondrial genome to increase the forensic discrimination of common HV1/HV2 types in the Caucasian population. PhD dissertation, Washington, DC: The George Washington University. Available online at: http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/pub_pres/ Coble2004dis.pdf.

Coble, M.D., Just, R.S., O'Callaghan, J.E., Letmanyi, I.H., Peterson, C.T., Irwin, J.A. and Parsons, T.J. (2004) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 118, 137-146.

Collura, R.V. and Stewart, C.B. (1995) Nature, 378, 485-489.

Comas, D., Paabo, S. and Bertranpetit, J. (1995) Genome Research, 5, 89-90.

Comas, D., Reynolds, R. and Sajantila, A. (1999) European Journal of Human Genetics, 7, 459-468.

Dugan, K.A., Lawrence, H.S., Hares, D.R., Fisher, C.L. and Budowle, B. (2002) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 47, 811-818.

Edson, S.M., Ross, J.P., Coble, M.D., Parson, T.J. and Barritt, S.M. (2004) Forensic Science Review, 16, 63-90.

Elson, J. L., Andrews, R. M., Chinnery, P. F., Lightowlers, R. N., Turnbull, D. M. and Howell, N. (2001) American Journal of Human Genetics, 68, 145-153.

Eyre-Walker, A., Smith, N. H. and Smith, J. M. (1999) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 266, 477-483.

Filosto, M., Mancuso, M., Vives-Bauza, C., Vila, M.R., Shanske, S., Hirano, M., Andreu, A.L. and DiMauro, S. (2003) Annals of Neurology, 54, 524-526.

Finnila, S., Lehtonen, M.S. and Majamaa, K. (2001) American Journal of Human Genetics, 68, 1475-1484.

Forster, P. (2003) Annals of Human Genetics, 67, 2-4.

Gabriel, M.N., Huffine, E.F., Ryan, J.H., Holland, M.M. and Parsons, T.J. (2001a) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46, 247-253.

Gabriel, M.N., Calloway, C.D., Reynolds, R.L., Andelinovic, S. and Primorac, D. (2001b) Croatian Medical Journal, 42, 328-335.

Gabriel, M.N., Calloway, C.D., Reynolds, R.L. and Primorac, D. (2003) Croatian Medical Journal, 44, 293-298.

Giambernardi, T.A., Rodeck, U. and Klebe, R.J. (1998) Biotechniques, 25, 564-566.

Giles, R.E., Blanc, H., Cann, H.M. and Wallace, D.C. (1980) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 77, 6715-6719.

Goldstein, D.B. and Chikhi, L. (2002) Annual Reviews in Genomics and Human Genetics, 3, 129-152. See quotation on p. 143.

Grzybowski, T. (2000) Electrophoresis, 21, 548-553.

Grzybowski, T., Malyarchuk, B.A., Czarny, J., Miscicka-Sliwka, D. and Kotzbach, R. (2003) Electrophoresis, 24, 1159-1165.

Gyllensten, U., Wharton, D., Josefsson, A. and Wilson, A.C. (1991) Nature, 352, 255-257.

Hagelberg, E., Goldman, N., Lio, P., Whelan, S., Schiefenhovel, W., Clegg, J.B. and

Bowden, D.K. (1999) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences,

Hagelberg, E., Goldman, N., Lio, P., Whelan, S., Schiefenhovel, W., Clegg, J.B. and

Bowden, D.K. (2000) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences,

267, 1595-1596.

Handt, O., Meyer, S. and von Haeseler, A. (1998) Nucleic Acids Research, 26, 126-129.

Helgason, A., Hrafnkelsson, B., Gulcher, J.R., Ward, R. and Stefansson, K. (2003) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72, 1370-1388.

Herrnstadt, C., Elson, J.L., Fahy, E., Preston, G., Turnbull, D.M., Anderson, C., Ghosh, S.S., Olefsky, J.M., Beal, M.F., Davis, R.E. and Howell, N. (2002) American Journal of Human Genetics, 70, 1152-1171.

Herrnstadt, C., Preston, G. and Howell, N. (2003) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72, 1585-1586.

Higuchi, R., von Beroldingen, C.H., Sensabaugh, G.F. and Erlich, H.A. (1988) Nature, 332, 543-546.

Holland, M.M., Fisher, D.L., Mitchell, L.G., Rodriquez, W.C., Canik, J.J., Merril, C.R. and Weedn, V.W. (1993) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 38, 542-553.

Holland, M.M., Fisher, D.L., Roby, R.K., Ruderman, J., Bryson, C. and Weedn, V.W. (1995) Crime Laboratory Digest, 22, 109-115.

Holland, M.M. and Parsons, T.J. (1999) Forensic Science Review, 11, 21-50.

Hopgood, R., Sullivan, K.M. and Gill, P. (1992) Biotechniques, 13, 82-92.

Houck, M.M. and Budowle, B. (2002) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 47, 964-967.

Ingman, M., Kaessmann, H., Paabo, S. and Gyllensten, U. (2000) Nature, 408, 708-713.

Ingman, M. and Gyllensten, U. (2001) Journal of Heredity, 92, 454-461.

Ingman, M. and Gyllensten, U. (2003) Genome Research, 13, 1600-1606.

Isenberg, A.R. and Moore, J.M. (1999) Mitochondrial DNA analysis at the FBI Laboratory. Forensic Science Communications, volume 1, number 2 [online]. Available at: http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/july1999/dnalist.htm.

Isenberg, A.R. (2004) Forensic mitochondrial DNA analysis. In Saferstein, R. (ed.): Forensic Science Handbook. Volume II, Second Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, pp. 297-327.

Ivanov, P.L., Wadhams, M.J., Roby, R.K., Holland, M.M., Weedn, V.W. and Parsons, T.J. (1996) Nature Genetics, 12, 417-420.

Jehaes, E., Gilissen, A., Cassiman, J. J. and Decorte, R. (1998) Forensic Science International, 94, 65-71.

Johns, D.R. (2003) Annals of Neurology, 54, 422-424.

Jorde, L.B. and Bamshad, M. (2000) Science, 288, 1931.

Kivisild, T. and Villems, R. (2000) Science, 288, 1931.

Krings, M., Stone, A., Schmitz, R.W., Krainitzki, H., Stoneking, M. and Paabo, S. (1997) Cell, 90, 19-30.

Krings, M., Geisert, H., Schmitz, R.W., Krainitzki, H. and Paabo, S. (1999) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 96, 5581-5585.

Kumar, S., Hedrick, P., Dowling, T. and Stoneking, M. (2000) Science, 288, 1931.

Lagerstrom-Fermer, M., Olsson, C., Forsgren, L. and Syvanen, A.C. (2001) American Journal of Human Genetics, 68, 1299-1301.

Lee, L.G., Spurgeon, S.L., Heiner, C.R., Benson, S.C., Rosenblum, B.B., Menchen, S.M., Graham, R.J., Constantinescu, A., Upadhya, K.G. and Cassel, J.M. (1997) Nucleic Acids Research, 25, 2816-2822.

Lee, M.S. and Levin, B.C. (2002) Mitochondrion, 1, 321-326.

Levin, B.C., Cheng, H. and Reeder, D. J. (1999) Genomics, 55, 135-146.

Levin, B.C., Holland, K.A., Hancock, D.K., Coble, M., Parsons, T.J., Kienker, L.J., Williams, D.W., Jones, M.P. and Richie, K.L. (2003) Mitochondrion, 2, 387-400.

Linch, C.A., Whiting, D.A. and Holland, M.M. (2001) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46, 844-853.

Lutz, S., Wittig, H., Weisser, H., Heizmann, J., Junge, A., Dimo-Simonin, N., Parson, W., Edelmann, J., Anslinger, K., Jung, S. and Augustin, C. (2000) Forensic Science International, 113, 97-101.

Macaulay, V., Richards, M. and Sykes, B. (1999) Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 266, 2037-2039.

Marchi, E. and Pasacreta, R.J. (1997) Journal of Capillary Electrophoresis, 4, 145-156.

Meissner, C., Mohamed, S.A., Klueter, H., Hamann, K., von Wurmb, N. and Oehmichen, M. (2000) Forensic Science International, 113, 109-112.

Melton, T. and Nelson, K. (2001) Croatian Medical Journal, 42, 298-303.

Melton, T., Clifford, S., Kayser, M., Nasidze, I., Batzer, M. and Stoneking, M. (2001) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46, 46-52.

Melton, T. (2004) Forensic Science Review, 16, 1-20.

Miller, K.W.P., Dawson, J.L. and Hagelberg, E. (1996) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 109, 107-113.

Miller, K.W. and Budowle, B. (2001) Croatian Medical Journal, 42, 315-327.

MITOMAP: A Human Mitochondrial Genome Database, Center for Molecular Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA, http://www.mitomap.org.

Monson, K.L., Miller, K.W.P., Wilson, M.R., DiZinno, J.A. and Budowle, B. (2002) The mtDNA population database: an integrated software and database resource, Forensic Science Communications [online]. Available at: http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/april2002/ miller1.htm.

Morgan, M.A., Parsons, T.J. and Holland, M.M. (1998) Proceedings from the Eighth International Symposium on Human Identification-1997, p128. Madison, Wisconsin: Promega Corporation.

Morley, J.M., Bark, J.E., Evans, C.E., Perry, J.G., Hewitt, C.A. and Tully, G. (1999) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 112, 241-248.

Parson, W., Brandstatter, A., Alonso, A., Brandt, N., Brinkmann, B., Carracedo, A., Corach, D., Froment, O., Furac, I., Grzybowski, T., Hedberg, K., Keyser-Tracqui, C., Kupiec, T., Lutz-Bonengel, S., Mevag, B., Ploski, R., Schmitter, H., Schneider, P., Syndercombe-Court, Sorensen, E., Thew, H., Tully, G. and Scheithauer, R. (2004) Forensic Science International, 139, 215-226.

Parsons, T.J. and Irwin, J.A. (2000) Science, 288, 1931.

Parsons, T.J. and Coble, M.D. (2001) Croatian Medical Journal, 42, 304-309.

Parsons, T.J., Muniec, D.S., Sullivan, K., Woodyatt, N., Alliston-Greiner, R., Wilson, M.R., Berry, D.L., Holland, K.A., Weedn, V.W., Gill, P. and Holland, M.M. (1997) Nature Genetics, 15, 363-368.

Pfeiffer, H., Huhne, J., Ortmann, C., Waterkamp, K. and Brinkmann, B. (1999) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 112, 287-290.

Piercy, R., Sullivan, K.M., Benson, N. and Gill, P. (1993) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 106, 85-90.

Prieto, L., Montesino, M., Salas, A., Alonso, A., Albarran, C., Alvarez, S., Crespillo, M., di Lonardo, A.M., Doutremepuich, C., Fernandez-Fernandez, I., de la Vega, A.G., Gusmao, L., Lopez, C.M., Lopez-Soto, M., Lorente, J.A., Malaghini, M., Martinez, C.A., Modesti, N.M., Palacio, A.M., Paredes, M., Pena, S.D., Perez-Lezaun, A., Pestano, J.J., Puente, J., Sala, A., Vide, M., Whittle, M.R., Yunis, J.J. and Gomez, J. (2003) Forensic Science International, 134, 46-53.

Pushnova, E.A., Akhmedova, S.N., Shevtsov, S.P. and Shwartz, E.I. (1994) Human Mutation, 3, 292-296.

Quintans, B., Alvarez-Iglesias, V., Salas, A., Phillips, C., Lareu, M.V. and Carracedo, A. (2004) Forensic Science International, 140, 251-257.

Rasmussen, E.M., Sorensen, E., Eriksen, B., Larsen, H.J., and Morling, N. (2002) Forensic Science International, 129, 209-213.

Relethford, J.H. (2001) Genetics and the Search for Modern Human Origins. New York: Wiley-Liss.

Relethford, J.H. (2003) Reflections of Our Past: How Human History is Revealed in Our Genes. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Reynolds, R. and Varlaro, J. (1996) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 41, 279-286.

Richards, M. and Macaulay, V. (2001) American Journal of Human Genetics, 68, 1315-1320.

Rieder, M.J., Taylor, S.L., Tobe, V.O. and Nickerson, D.A. (1998) Nucleic Acids Research, 26, 967-973.

Robin, E.D. and Wong, R. (1988) Journal of Cell Physiology, 136, 507-513.

Röhl, A., Brinkmann, B., Forster, L. and Forster, P. (2001) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 115, 29-39.

Ruiz-Pesini, E., Mishmar, D., Brandon, M., Procaccio, V. and Wallace, D.C. (2004) Science, 303, 223-226.

Saiki, R.K., Walsh, P.S., Levenson, C.H. and Erlich, H.A. (1989) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 86, 6230-6234.

Sanger, F., Nicklen, S. and Coulson, A.R. (1977) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 74, 5463-5467.

Satoh, M. and Kuroiwa, T. (1991) Experimental Cell Research, 196, 137-140.

Scheffler, I.E. (1999) Mitochondria. New York: Wiley-Liss.

Schwartz, M. and Vissing, J. (2002) New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 576-580.

Sekiguchi, K., Kasai, K. and Levin, B.C. (2003) Mitochondrion, 2, 401-414.

Steighner, R.J., Tully, L.A., Karjala, J.D., Coble, M.D. and Holland, M.M. (1999) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 44, 1186-1198.

Stewart, J.E., Fisher, C.L., Aagaard, P.J., Wilson, M.R., Isenberg, A.R., Polanskey, D., Pokorak, E., DiZinno, J.A. and Budowle, B. (2001) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46, 862-870.

Stewart, J.E., Aagaard, P.J., Pokorak, E.G., Polanskey, D. and Budowle, B. (2003) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 48, 571-580.

Stone, A.C., Starrs, J.E. and Stoneking, M. (2001) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46, 173-176.

Stoneking, M., Hedgecock, D., Higuchi, R.G., Vigilant, L. and Erlich, H.A. (1991) American Journal of Human Genetics, 48, 370-382.

Stoneking, M., Melton, T., Nott, J., Barritt, S., Roby, R., Holland, M., Weedn, V., Gill, P., Kimpton, C., Aliston-Greiner, R. and Sullivan, K. (1995) Nature Genetics, 9, 9-10.

Stoneking, M. (2000) American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 1029-1032.

Sullivan, K.M., Hopgood, R., Lang, B. and Gill, P. (1991) Electrophoresis, 12, 17-21.

Sullivan, K.M., Hopgood, R. and Gill, P. (1992) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 105, 83-86.

Sullivan, K.M., Alliston-Greiner, R., Archampong, F.I.A., Piercy, R., Tully, G., Gill, P. and Lloyd-Davies, C. (1997) Proceedings of the Seventh International Symposium on Human Identification-1996, pp.126-130. Madison, Wisconsin: Promega Corporation.

Sutovsky, P., Moreno, R.D., Ramalho-Santos, J., Dominko, T., Simerly, C. and Schatten, G.

SWGDAM (2003) Guidelines for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) nucleotide sequence interpretation. Forensic Science Communications, 5 (2) [online]. Available at: http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/april2003/swgdammitodna.htm.

Szibor, R., Michael, M., Spitsyn, V.A., Plate, I., Ginter, E.K. and Krause, D. (1997) Electrophoresis, 18, 2857-2860.

Szibor, R., Edelmann, J., Hering, S., Plate, I., Wittig, H., Roewer, L., Wiegand, P., Cali, F., Romano, V. and Michael, M. (2003a) Forensic Science International, 138, 37-43.

Szibor, R., Michael, M., Plate, I., Wittig, H. and Krause, D. (2003b) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 117, 160-164.

Taylor, R.W., McDonnell, M.T., Blakely, E.L., Chinnery, P.F., Taylor, G.A., Howell, N., Zeviani, M., Briem, E., Carrara, F. and Turnbull, D.M. (2003) Annals of Neurology, 54, 521-524.

Torroni, A., Huoponen, K., Francalacci, P., Petrozzi, M., Morelli, L., Scozzari, R., Obinu, D., Savontaus, M.-L. and Wallace, D.C. (1996) Genetics, 144, 1835-1850.

Tully, G., Sullivan, K.M., Nixon, P., Stones, R.E. and Gill, P. (1996) Genomics, 34, 107-113.

Tully, G. Mitochondrial DNA: a small but valuable genome. (1999) First International Conference on Forensic Human Identification. Forensic Science Service.

Tully, G., Bar, W., Brinkmann, B., Carracedo, A., Gill, P., Morling, N., Parson, W. and Schneider, P. (2001) Forensic Science International, 124, 83-91.

Tully, G., Barritt, S.M., Bender, K., Brignon, E., Capelli, C., Dimo-Simonin, N., Eichmann, C., Ernst, C.M., Lambert, C., Lareu, M.V., Ludes, B., Mevag, B., Parson, W., Pfeiffer, H., Salas, A., Schneider, P.M. and Staalstrom, E. (2004) Forensic Science International, 140, 1-11.

Tully, L.A., Parsons, T.J., Steighner, R.J., Holland, M.M., Marino, M.A. and Prenger, V.L.

(2000) American Journal of Human Genetics, 67, 432-443.

Vallone, P.M., Just, R.S., Coble, M.D., Butler, J.M., and Parsons, T.J. (2004) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 118, 147-157.

Walker, M.D. (2003) Jurimetrics Journal, 43, 427-440.

Walker, J.A., Garber, R.K., Hedges, D.J., Kilroy, G.E., Xing, J. and Batzer, M.A. (2004) Analytical Biochemistry, 325, 171-173.

Wallace, D.C., Ye, J. H., Neckelmann, S.N., Singh, G., Webster, K.A. and Greenberg, B.D. (1987) Current Genetics, 12, 81-90.

Wallace, D.C., Stugard, C., Murdock, D., Schurr, T. and Brown, M.D. (1997) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A, 94, 14900-14905.

Wallace, D.C., Brown, M.D. and Lott, M.T. (1999) Gene, 238, 211-230.

Wilson, M.R. (1997) Update to: extraction, PCR amplification and sequencing of mitochondrial DNA from human hair shafts. In Gyllensten U. and Ellingboe J. (eds) The PCR Technique: DNA Sequencing II. Natick, Massachusetts: Eaton Publishing, pp. 322-328.

Wilson, M.R., Stoneking, M., Holland, M.M., DiZinno, J.A. and Budowle, B. (1993) Crime Laboratory Digest, 20, 68-77.

Wilson, M.R., Polanskey, D., Butler, J., DiZinno, J.A., Replogle, J. and Budowle, B. (1995a) BioTechniques, 18, 662-669.

Wilson, M.R., DiZinno, J.A., Polanskey, D., Replogle, J. and Budowle, B. (1995b) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 108, 68-74.

Wilson, M.R., Polanskey, D., Replogle, J., DiZinno, J.A. and Budowle, B. (1997) Human Genetics, 100, 167-171.

Wilson, M.R., Allard, M.W., Monson, K., Miller, K.W. and Budowle, B. (2002a) Forensic Science International, 129, 35-42.

Wilson, M.R., Allard, M.W., Monson, K., Miller, K.W.P. and Budowle, B. (2002b) Further discussion of the consistent treatment of length variants in the human mitochondrial DNA control region. Forensic Science Communications [online]. Available at: http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/oct2002/wilson.htm.

Wilson, M.R. and Allard, M.W. (2004) Forensic Science Review, 16, 37-62.

Wittig, H., Augustin, C., Baasner, A., Bulnheim, U., Dimo-Simonin, N., Edelmann, J., Hering, S., Jung, S., Lutz, S., Michael, M., Parson, W., Poetsch, M., Schneider, P.M., Weichhold, G. and Krause, D. (2000) Forensic Science International, 113, 113-118.

Wurmb-Schwark, N., Higuchi, R., Fenech, A.P., Elfstroem, C., Meissner, C., Oehmichen, M. and Cortopassi, G.A. (2002) Forensic Science International, 126, 34-39.

Yoshii, T., Tamura, K. and Ishiyama, I. (1992) Nippon Hoigaku Zasshi, 46, 313-316.

Zischler, H., Geisert, H., von Haeseler, A. and Paabo, S. (1995) Nature, 378, 489-492.

CHAPTER 11

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment