If the suspect and the true perpetrator of a crime are related, then their genotype frequencies are not independent and a different calculation is required (Weir 1994, Weir 2003). Since STR profiles from relatives are expected to be more similar to the individual in question than a random, unrelated individual, NRC II recommendation 4.4 covers probability calculations from various scenarios of individuals related to the suspect. Table 21.6 works through the same DNA profile according to NRC II recommendations 4.4 and equations 4.8a and 4.8b (see Appendix VI).
More recently, Weir (2003) has developed match probability formulas to calculate the effects of family relatedness that incorporate population substructure functions into them. These formula are listed in Table 21.7 along with a worked example using a homozygote TH01 6,6 Caucasian allele frequency and a heterozygote D13S317 11,14 Caucasian allele frequencies. Note that in the case of the TH01 6,6 example the match probability increases from 0.06283 for an unrelated individual to 0.38921 for full siblings - an increase of more than sixfold. Likewise, the random match probability of the heterozygote D13S317
II,14 changes 9.3-fold from 0.03864 to 0.35955 when moving from an unrelated individual to a full sibling.
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This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.