:gctgc taaccccata

;cgacg attggggtat 530 540

ccccgaacca accaaacccc aaagacaccc ccca3agttt atgtagctta cctcctcaaa ggggcttggt tggtttgggg tttctgtggg gggtptcaaa tacatcgaat ggaggagttt 550 560 570 580 590 600

gcaatacact gaaaätgttt agacgggctc acatcacccc ataaacaaat aggtttggtc cgttatgtga cttttacaaa tctgcccgag tgtagtgggg tatttgttta tccaaaccag 610 620 630 640 650 660

Figure 10.7 Comparison of a sample with (a) 16189T (no HV1 C-stretch) to (b) one with the C-stretch. Notice how the sequence quality quickly drops after the string of cytosine residues due to the presence of two or more length variants that creates a situation where the extension products are out of phase or register with one another. Different primer combinations are typically used on samples containing a C-stretch as illustrated in (c) to recover sequence information from both strands or to provide a double read of the same strand.


Good quality sequence

Poor quality sequence

(two length variants out of phase)

HV1 C-stretch

(c) Primer strategies typically used with C-stretch containing samples



Use of internal primers

Double reactions from the same strand

In the event that the C-stretch is present in a sample, different sequencing primers may be used to obtain reliable mtDNA sequence information downstream of the homopolymeric stretches (Rasmussen et al. 2002). For example, the FBI A4/B4 primer set (L16209 and H16164) shown in Figure 10.6 can be used on individuals possessing the HV1 C-stretch in order to recover sequence information from both sides of the homopolymeric stretch of cytosines (Wilson 1997). Alternatively the same strand may be examined twice in separate sequencing reactions to provide double coverage of all nucleotides (Figure 10.7c).

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Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.

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