Forensic DNA laboratories may be called upon to assist in victim identification following mass disasters such as airplane crashes or terrorist attacks. Situations where remains are highly fragmented prevent the use of fingerprints or dental records to rapidly determine the identity of each victim and DNA analysis often becomes the only method to bring closure to the chaos of such an event. To recognize the increasing role that DNA information is playing in mass disaster victim identification, we discuss here the application of STRs, mitochondrial DNA, and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the identification of individuals who died in the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 at the World Trade Center twin towers, the Pentagon, and Shanksville, Pennsylvania. The original information from the first edition on the Waco Branch Davidian fire (April 1993) and the airline crash of Swissair Flight 111 (September 1998) are retained to provide historical perspective.
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Discover Simple Techniques to Help Control Your Stutter. Stuttering is annoying and embarrassing. If you or a member of your family stutters, you already know the impact it can have on your everyday life. Stuttering interferes with communication, and can make social situations very difficult. It can even be harmful to your school or business life.