Genetic mixing of alleles is not completely random because parents often share some common ancestry. The consequence of this non-random mating is that
Histogram comparison of allele frequencies for three different U.S. population groups for alleles observed at the STR locus D13S317 (see Appendix II). Alleles are indicated by repeat number. Note that a single observation was made of an allele 15 in both the Caucasian and Hispanic sample sets (asterisks). Since these are below the minimum allele threshold of five observations, then the value used in performing frequency estimates would be 0.00828 [5/2(302)] for the Caucasians and 0.01786 [5/2(140)] for the Hispanics.
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This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.