One of the major challenges for maintaining a DNA database is the issue of privacy and security of the information stored in the database. Blood samples contain genetic information that could be used against an individual or their family if not handled properly. The issue of privacy is approached in two ways. First, the DNA markers, such as the 13 CODIS core STR loci, are in non-coding regions of the DNA and are not known to have any association with a genetic disease or any other genetic predisposition. Thus, the information in the database is only useful for human identity testing.
Second, no names of individuals or other characterizing data is stored with the DNA profiles. The National DNA Index System of CODIS only references the sources of the DNA profiles, such as Orange County Sheriff's Office or Palm Beach County Crime Laboratory. Specific case data is secured and controlled by local law enforcement agencies (Spalding 1995). Thus, only the crime laboratory that submitted the DNA profile has the capability to link the DNA results with a known individual.
Another important facet to the privacy and security of the information in DNA databases is the fact that access to CODIS is solely for law enforcement purposes. There are strict penalties for any one using the information or samples for any purpose other than law enforcement including a $100 000 fine for unauthorized disclosures of information on any sample (McEwen 1995).
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This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.