Search And Match Algorithms

As DNA databases grow in size, they become more valuable as an intelligence tool, but they also become more of a challenge to search rapidly. In addition, because the STR kits used by the various manufacturers may have different primer binding regions for the same loci, allele dropout could result with one primer set and not the other as noted previously in Chapter 6 (Walsh 1998, Budowle et al. 2001b). This would result in an apparent discrepancy between results obtained with one STR kit versus another. Lower stringency search algorithms may be used to address this issue. For example, the CODIS search algorithm and match criteria can be loosened on a search using 26 possible alleles from the 13 STRs by only requiring a match at 25 out of 26 possible alleles.

Differences in measurement capabilities of laboratories, particularly in their ability to detect microvariant (off-ladder) alleles, make it important to have allele equivalency capabilities in the search algorithm. Thus, a TH01 allele 8.3 measured in one laboratory can be matched with an allele 8.x or allele 9 measured in another laboratory. However, this aspect of STR typing is not as problematic now that separation and detection technologies have become more refined and precise (see Butler et al. 2004).

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Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.

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