Studies With Additional Ystr Markers

Within the last several years, a number of new Y chromosome STR markers have been characterized and new multiplex assays developed (Redd et al. 1997, Prinz et al. 1997, Gusmao et al. 1999, Bosch et al. 2002, Butler et al. 2002, Redd et al. 2002, Schoske 2003, Hanson and Ballantyne 2004). Information on additional Y-STR loci and assays is available on the NIST STRBase web site at http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/y_str.htm.

A few population studies have been conducted that go beyond the minimal haplotype loci in order to assess the power of additional markers in resolving most common types. For example, Berger et al. (2003) found that addition of the multi-copy marker DYS464 to the minimal haplotype loci increased the number of different haplotypes in a set of 135 Austrian males from 110 to 122. Schoske and co-workers (2004) demonstrated that 25 samples, which possessed an indistinguishable most common minimal haplotype could be subdivided into 24 different groups (only one pair could not be resolved) with the addition of DYS438, DYS439, DYS464, DYS458, DYS460, and DYS437. Statistical studies have also been performed to compare various combinations of Y-STR loci to the minimal haplotype in order to determine the best order in which to apply the markers (Alves et al. 2003). Thus, other loci beyond the core minimal haplotype or SWGDAM-recommended loci are likely to play a valuable role with future forensic DNA analysis involving the Y chromosome.

Marker Name

Allele

Repeat Motif

GenBank

Reference

Range

Accession

Information on additional Y-STR loci (adapted from Butler 2003).

YCAIIa/b

DYS388

DYS425

DYS426

DYS434

DYS435

DYS436

DYS441

DYS442

DYS443

DYS444

DYS445

DYS446

DYS447

DYS448

DYS449

DYS450

DYS452

DYS453

DYS454

DYS455

DYS456

DYS458

DYS459a/b

DYS462

DYS463

DYS464 a/b/c/d

Y-GATA-H4

DYS635 (C4)

Y-GATA-A10

9-15

12-18

10-14

12-17

26-36 8-11

27-33

9-13

10-12 8-12

7-12

8-14

8-14

18-27

9-20

19-25 13-18

CA ATT TGT GTT

TAAT (CTAT)

TGGA

CCTT

TATC

TTCC

TAGA

TTTA

TCTCT

TAAWA compound

AGAGAT

TTTC

TTTTA

YATAC compound

AAAT

AAAT

AAAT

AGAT

GAAA

TAAA

ATAG

(TAGA) CAGA TATG

AARGG compound

CCTT

TAGA

TSTA compound TAGA

AC015978

AC004810

AC095380

AC007034

AC002992

AC002992

AC005820

AC004474

AC004810

AC007274

AC007043

AC009233

AC006152

AC005820

AC025227

AC051663

AC051663

AC010137

AC006157

AC025731

AC012068

AC010106

AC010902

AC010682

AC009235 (r&c)

AC009235 (r&c)

AC007244

AC007275

X17354

AC011751 (r&c)

G42673

AC011751

14 12

23 22 29

16 9

10 12 11

24 13 12 21 13

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