Within the last several years, a number of new Y chromosome STR markers have been characterized and new multiplex assays developed (Redd et al. 1997, Prinz et al. 1997, Gusmao et al. 1999, Bosch et al. 2002, Butler et al. 2002, Redd et al. 2002, Schoske 2003, Hanson and Ballantyne 2004). Information on additional Y-STR loci and assays is available on the NIST STRBase web site at http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/y_str.htm.
A few population studies have been conducted that go beyond the minimal haplotype loci in order to assess the power of additional markers in resolving most common types. For example, Berger et al. (2003) found that addition of the multi-copy marker DYS464 to the minimal haplotype loci increased the number of different haplotypes in a set of 135 Austrian males from 110 to 122. Schoske and co-workers (2004) demonstrated that 25 samples, which possessed an indistinguishable most common minimal haplotype could be subdivided into 24 different groups (only one pair could not be resolved) with the addition of DYS438, DYS439, DYS464, DYS458, DYS460, and DYS437. Statistical studies have also been performed to compare various combinations of Y-STR loci to the minimal haplotype in order to determine the best order in which to apply the markers (Alves et al. 2003). Thus, other loci beyond the core minimal haplotype or SWGDAM-recommended loci are likely to play a valuable role with future forensic DNA analysis involving the Y chromosome.
Information on additional Y-STR loci (adapted from Butler 2003).
CA ATT TGT GTT
(TAGA) CAGA TATG
TSTA compound TAGA
23 22 29
10 12 11
24 13 12 21 13
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