System S

There is no gene for the human spirit.

(From the movie GATTACA, 1997)

Technical advances in this field are very rapid. We can expect in the near future methods that are more reliable, less expensive, and less time-consuming than those in use today.

We live in an age of rapid discovery in biotechnology. New technologies that were only imagined a few years ago are now reality. Furthermore, DNA sequence information is becoming available at an unprecedented rate. This information is leading us to a better understanding of human genetic diversity. While it is impossible to predict where the forensic DNA community will be five or ten years from now, there are some new technologies that deserve recognition and that will be reviewed briefly in this chapter. We will also discuss the advantages of automation in large-scale testing operations such as are done for construction of DNA databases.


Most DNA testing in the United States is currently performed in small public forensic laboratories, each consisting of less than a dozen scientists devoted to DNA analysis. However, with the development of several new technologies that will be discussed below it is conceivable that in the future large-scale operations might become more prevalent for DNA database work. In addition, some DNA tests may be performed at the crime scene with hand-held or portable devices. Thus, this section has been broken up into technological developments that will aid crime scene DNA testing and large-scale testing for DNA database development. Some methods are extensions of current fluorescence-based technology and other techniques involve completely novel technology.

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Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

Stammering Its Cause and Its Cure

This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.

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