In Chapter 6 we discussed rare variant or 'off-ladder' alleles and tri-allelic patterns. Since these anomalies do exist, they must be accounted for in statistical calculations and STR profile frequency estimates. Because they are rare, it is expected that the minimum allele rule discussed in Chapter 20 would be applied and therefore they would be treated as 5/2N (see NRC II, p. 148). In the case of the Caucasian population from Appendix II where N = 302, the minimum allele threshold of 5/2N is 0.00828 or 0.828%. On the variant allele listing of STRBase (http://www.cstl.nist.gov/biotech/strbase/var_tab.htm) some frequency estimates for particular variant alleles and tri-allelic patterns are provided as these alleles are discovered.
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This book discusses the futility of curing stammering by common means. It traces various attempts at curing stammering in the past and how wasteful these attempt were, until he discovered a simple program to cure it. The book presents the life of Benjamin Nathaniel Bogue and his struggles with the handicap. Bogue devotes a great deal of text to explain the handicap of stammering, its effects on the body and psychology of the sufferer, and its cure.