Lineage markers include mitochondrial DNA (see Chapter 10) and Y chromosome haplotypes (see Chapter 9) that are transferred directly from generation to generation either from mother to child in the case of mitochondrial DNA or from father to son in the case of the Y chromosome. As described in the earlier chapters, the counting method in conjunction with an upper bound confidence limit is typically used with mtDNA or Y chromosome haplotypes. The counting method relies on the size of the database and involves counting the number of times the profile (haplotype) has been observed within the database. A frequency estimate with a confidence interval is then made based on this count (see D.N.A. Box 10.3).
REFERENCES AND ADDITIONAL READING
Balding, D.J. (1999) When can a DNA profile be regarded as unique? Science and Justice, 39, 257-260.
Balding, D.J. and Donnelly, P. (1994) The prosecutor's fallacy and DNA evidence. Criminal Law Review, 711-721.
Balding, D. and Donnelly, P. (1995) Inferring identity from DNA profile evidence. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 92, 11741-11745.
Balding, D.J. and Donnelly, P. (1996) Evaluating DNA profile evidence when the suspect is identified through a database search. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 41, 603-607.
Brenner, C.H. (2003) Forensic genetics: mathematics. In Cooper, D.N. (ed) Nature Encyclopedia of the Human Genome, Volume 2, pp. 513-519. New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, Nature Publishing Group.
Budowle, B., Chakraborty, R., Carmody, G. and Monson, K.L. (2000) Source attribution of a forensic DNA profile. Forensic Science Communications, 2 (3). Available online at: http://www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/july2000/source.htm.
Budowle, B., Shea, B., Niezgoda, S. and Chakraborty, R. (2001) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 46, 453-489.
Chakraborty, R. (1992) Human Biology, 64, 141-159.
Chakraborty, R., Stivers, D.N., Su, Y. and Budowle, B. (1999) Electrophoresis, 20, 1682-1696.
Collins, A. and Morton, N.E. (1994) Likelihood ratios for DNA identification. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 91, 6007-6011.
DNA Advisory Board (2000) Statistical and population genetic issues affecting the evaluation of the frequency of occurrence of DNA profiles calculated from pertinent population database(s) (approved 23 February 2000). Forensic Science Communications, July 2000. Available at: http://www.fbi.gov/programs/lab/fsc/backissu/july2000/ dnastat.htm; see also Appendix V.
Evett, I.W. and Buckleton, J.S. (1996) Statistical analysis of STR data. In Carracedo, A., Brinkmann, B. and Bar, W. (eds) Advances in Forensic Haemogenetics 6, pp. 79-86. New York: Springer-Verlag.
Evett, I.W. and Weir, B.S. (1998) Interpreting DNA Evidence: Statistical Genetics for Forensic Scientists. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Foreman, L.A. and Evett, I.W. (2001) International Journal of Legal Medicine, 114, 147-155.
Foreman, L.A., Champod, C., Evett, I.W., Lambert, J.A. and Pope, S. (2003) Interpreting DNA evidence: a review. International Statistical Review, 71, 473-495.
Gill, P., Foreman, L., Buckleton, J.S., Triggs, C.M. and Allen, H. (2003) Forensic Science International, 131, 184-196.
Henderson, J.P. (2002) Forensic Science International, 128, 183-186.
Krawczak, M. (1999) Statistical inference from DNA evidence. In Epplen, J.T. and
Lubjuhn, T. (eds) DNA Profiling and DNA Fingerprinting, pp. 229-244. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag.
National Research Council Committee on DNA Forensic Science (1996) The Evaluation of Forensic DNA Evidence. National Academy Press: Washington, DC; usually referred to as NRCII; recommendations listed in Appendix VI.
Stockmarr, A. (1999) Biometrics, 55, 671-677.
Taroni, F., Lambert, J.A., Fereday, L. and Werrett, D.J. (2002) Science and Justice, 42, 21-28. Thompson, W.C. and Schumann, E.L. (1987) Law Human Behavior, 11, 167-187. Tracey, M. (2001) Croatian Medical Journal, 42, 233-238. Weir, B.S. (1994) Annual Reviews of Genetics, 28, 597-621.
Weir, B.S. (1996) Genetic Data Analysis II: Methods for Discrete Population Genetic Data. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
Weir, B.S. (1997) The co-ancestry coefficient in forensic science. Proceedings from the Eighth International Symposium on Human Identification, pp. 87-91. Madison, Wisconsin: Promega Corporation.
Weir, B.S. (2003) Forensics. In Balding, D.J., Bishop, M. and Cannings, C. (eds) Handbook of Statistical Genetics, 2nd Edition, pp. 830-852. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Weir, B.S. (2003b) DNA evidence: inferring identity. In Cooper, D.N. (ed) Nature Encyclopedia of the Human Genome, Volume 2, pp. 85-88. New York: Macmillan Publishers Ltd, Nature Publishing Group.
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