Ystr Haplotype Databases

The largest and most widely used Y-STR database was created by Lutz Roewer and colleagues at Humbolt University in Berlin, Germany and has been available online since 2000. The information in this database comes from 89 collaborating institutions located in 36 different countries (Roewer 2003). As of May 2004, more than 24 000 samples from greater than 224 populations

Figure 9.7 Alleles present in (a) PowerPlex® Y and (b) Y-PLEX™ 12 allelic ladders for the DYS385 a/b locus.

around the world can be searched via the Internet at the following web sites: http://www.ystr.org or http://www.yhrd.org. It is important to keep in mind that the samples entered into this database have been typed only at the minimal haplotype loci (DYS19, DYS389I/II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, and DYS385a/b). At present, these samples do not include the additional SWGDAM recommended loci DY438 and DYS439 that are now available in commercial Y-STR kits.

Other Internet-accessible Y-STR databases are also available as summarized in Table 9.4. These databases contain information from the minimal haplotype loci, a subset of the minimal haplotype loci, or additional Y-STRs and therefore cannot always be searched across all loci of interest. Hopefully a comprehensive Y-STR database will be developed and made available in the future that will include a larger number of loci typed and a greater number of samples. This database will need to go to efforts to insure that no duplicates are

Population Group No. of Samples

Markers Tested


(as of June 2004)

Minimal haplotype loci

224 worldwide populations

94 European populations

30 regional U.S. populations

U.S. groups

U.S. groups


13 892

1705 total

599 African-Americans 628 European-Americans 478 Hispanic-Americans

22 Asian populations 2576

4623 total

2239 African-Americans 1826 Caucasians 454 Hispanics 104 Native Americans

3406 total

1605 African-Americans 1243 Caucasians 454 Hispanics 104 Native Americans

Minimal haplotype loci

Minimal haplotype loci

Minimal haplotype loci

Minimal haplotype loci

Y-PLEX 6 loci

SWGDAM-recommended loci (with Y-PLEX 6 and Y-PLEX 5 kits)

Roewer et al. (2001); www.ystr.org

Kayser et al. (2002); Kayser et al. (2003); www.ystr.org/usa

Lessig et al. (2003); www.ystr.org/asia

Sinha et al. (2003) www.reliagene.com


U.S. groups

Genealogists from around the world

Genealogists from around the world

Genealogists from around the world

2443 total

577 African-Americans 595 Caucasians 630 Hispanics 357 Native Americans 284 Asian-Americans


5300 records

4169 unique haplotypes

8735 haplotypes associated with 296424 individual ancestors

SWGDAM-recommended loci + DYS437

(with PowerPlex Y kit)

Up to 49 Y-STRs (run by genetic genealogy companies)

Up to 37 Y-STRs (run by FamilyTree DNA)

Allele frequencies for 37 Y-STRs (run by Sorenson Genomics/ Relative Genetics)



Table 9.4 present so that reliable estimates of the rarity of a profile can be performed.

Summary of available Demonstration that samples are unique may be performed with autosomal STR

typing of those specimens that possess similar Y-STR profiles (Butler et al. 2002).

online Y-STR databases.

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