Modes of Dispersal

As a habitat dead wood is characterized by (i) the limited duration of each habitat patch (e.g. a fallen trunk) and (ii) an unpredictable and heterogeneous distribution of habitat patches in space and time, influenced by twigs and branches falling, natural tree mortality factors (e.g. storms, drought) and in recent centuries by forest management cycles and landscape fragmentation. To persist in this highly dynamic context wood decay fungi need to be able to spread between sinking and rising...

Geographic Distribution Zones

The boreal zone is climatically represented by short summers and long winters. It is also climatically divided into oceanic parts with higher precipitation and continental areas with lower precipitation, for example western parts of Fennoscandia have an oceanic climate, while towards the east the climate becomes more continental (e.g. Ahti et al., 1968 Tuhkanen, 1980). The boreal zone has also been divided latitudinally, that is hemiboreal, southern boreal, middle boreal and northern boreal...

Detection Of Grassland Fungi

The question of what role is played by particular species or groups in relation to ecosystem function is fundamental to microbial ecology. The technological and conceptual challenge required by any attempt to answer this has led to an obsession with methods. For unit-restricted taxa (see Chapter 1) such as many dung fungi, it would appear to be a relatively simple question, though current data are based almost exclusively on basidiocarp presence. However, most fungal activity in grasslands...

What Is Grassland

The most intensively studied grasslands are those of Northern Europe and North America, and this review will focus mainly on these habitats. However, it is apposite to provide an overview of the global diversity of grassland systems and how they differ from the other main habitat types. Globally, grassland habitats cover ca. 20 of the terrestrial land area (Swift et al., 1979 Parton et al., 1995), occurring mainly where low or seasonal rainfall (250-1,500 mm year-1) has prevented the...

Invertebrate Effects On Fungal Physiology And Metabolism

There seems to have been little research performed on effects of invertebrates on Basidiomycota physiology and metabolism, yet such effects are sometimes likely to be large, in view of the dramatic changes to morphology mentioned above. Grazing by F. Candida altered the partitioning of 15N added to soil close to the wood inoculum (G.M. Tordoff et al., unpublished) less 15N was transferred to new mycelial growth in grazed systems than in ungrazed systems, presumably related to slower growth and...

Decay in Felled Logs and Large Branches

Fungal community development in bulky wood on the forest floor has been studied in a number of cases, especially in Fagus spp., which we describe here as a model system for wood decay in angiosperms. Decay community development in other deciduous tree species seems to follow similar pathways (Gricius et al., 1999 Hood et al., 2004 Lindhe et al., 2004), though some differences are evident reflecting differences in bark and wood morphology and wood chemistry. In many Betula spp. the bark is...

Mutualistic Interactions

Litter- and wood-degrading basidiomycetes have developed strategies for suboptimal concentrations of nitrogen in their substrates. These strategies include recycling of nitrogen from senescent mycelium, reallocation from intracellular stored proteins and uptake and translocation of nitrogen from soil to wood litter (Cowling and Merrill, 1966 Watkinson et al., 2001 Lindahl and Finlay, 2005). As mentioned in the previous section, it has been proposed that lysis of bacteria may be another strategy...

Compatible Solutes Tolerance of Water Stress and Translocation of Water

For fungi to grow under solute or matric stress, compatible solutes are needed to enable enzyme systems to function, and basidiomycetes are no exception in this respect (Magan, 1997). The key compatible solutes are the high-molecular weight sugar alcohols (polyols) mannitol and arabitol, and the low-molecular weight erythritol and glycerol. Glycerol and erythritol are outstanding in this respect and their accumulation is a major determinant of the water relations of xerotolerant and xerophilic...

Effects On Invertebrate Behaviour

A wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including alcohols, terpe-nes, aldehydes, ketones, sesquiterpenes and aromatics, are produced by Basiomycota fruit bodies (Faldt et al., 1999 Rosecke et al., 2000), mycelium (Hynes et al., 2007) and decomposing organic resources (Cole et al., 1989), and often increase in quantity and quality if physically damaged (Stadler and Sterner, 1998 Faldt et al., 1999) or during inter-specific mycelial interactions (Hynes et al., 2007 Chapter 7)....

Direct Effects Of Invertebrates On Fungi Mycophagy

While feeding within fruit bodies, invertebrates inevitably ingest spores. Passage of spores through guts can result in considerable damage resulting in failure to germinate, for example, Agrocybe sp. after passage through the gut of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris Moody et al., 1996). Some Collembola completely break open spores during gut passage, for example, Hypogastrura spp. feeding on cultivated Hypsizygus marmoreus, though damage varied between Collembola species (Nakamori and Suzuki,...

References

Aanen, D.K., Eggleton, P. and Rouland-Lefevre, C. (2002). The evolution of fungus-growing termites and their mutualistic fungal symbionts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 14887-14892. Agrios, G.N. (1980). Insect involvement in the transmission of fungal pathogens. In Vectors of Plant Pathogens (K.F. Harris and K. Maramorosch, eds.), pp. 293-324. Academic Press, New York, NY. Anderson, J.M., Ineson, P. and Huish, S.A. (1983). Nitrogen and...

Occurrence And Distribution Of Aquatic Basidiomycetes

Freshwater basidiomycetes have been isolated from foam samples (Jones and Sloof, 1966) and from senescent decaying leaf litter (Nawawi et al., 1977a, 1977b Marvanova and Stalpers, 1987 Nawawi and Kuthubutheen, 1988), while Stauri-ella aquatica was recovered from test blocks of Dipterocarpus alatus submerged for 9 months in a stream in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand (Sivichai and Jones, 2004). In a study of fungal colonization of senescent palms submerged in a peat swamp at Narathiwat,...

Species Index

Aegerita candida (anamorph of Bulbillomyces farinosus), 305 Aegerita tortuosa (anamorph of Subulicystidium longisporum), 305 Agaricus, 91, 147, 166, 283, 337 Agaricus arvensis, 33 Agaricus bisporus, 33, 36, 63, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 77, 78, 81, 99, 100, 147, 153, 159, 166 Agaricus campestris, 284 Agrocybe, 33, 161 Agrocybe praecox, 8, 165 Amanita, 34 Amylocystis lapponica, 246, 270 Amylostereum, 115 Amylostereum areolatum, 115, 122, 157, 167, 177, 179 Amylostereum chailletii, 115, 122, 157, 169,...

Lignin Decomposition by Saprotrophs

As cellulose decomposition proceeds, the concentration of the more recalcitrant lignin increases Figure 1 Berg et al., 1982 . At later stages of decomposition, decay correlate well with lignin concentration in the litter McClaugherty and Berg, 1987 . Polyphenolic compounds, either tannins present in the fresh litter or products of lignin decomposition, form recalcitrant complexes with nitrogen-containing compounds, such as proteins and chitin Kelley and Stevenson, 1995 . As a result, nitrogen...

Terricolous Lignicolous Decomposers and Fairy Rings

For most terricolous i.e. fruiting on soil basidiomycetes, ecological information is largely reliant on spatiotemporal analysis of fruiting, though some studies on mycelia, notably those of Warcup see below , have provided valuable insights. Vertical stratification of grassland soils is usually less than in woodland due to invertebrate activity and it is not known whether mycorrhizal fungi dominate the deeper soil horizons, as is the case in woodland Lindahl et al., 2007 . The most obvious...

Aquatic Basidiomycetes And Their Taxonomic Relationship

Aquatic Basidiomycota are a minority group when compared with the as-comycetes, anamorphic fungi and Chromista Table 2 . Taxonomically they are unrelated, belonging to such diverse groups as the Agaricomycotina, Uredino-myctoina and Ustilaginomycotina Table 1 . Filamentous Agaricomycotina are represented by the orders Agaricales, Atheliales, Cantharellales, Polyporales, Russulales and Tremellales. Basidiomycete yeasts are found in four lineages in the Uredinomycotina Agaricostilbomycetes,...

Nitrogen Export During Late Saprotrophic Decomposition Stages

During the second year of pine needle decomposition, the absolute amounts of nitrogen in litter peak and subsequently decrease Figure 1 Berg et al., 1982 . As decomposition progresses, the quality of litter as a carbon and energy source decreases, fungal growth declines, and decomposing litter changes from a sink for nitrogen to a source. Thus, the import of nitrogen into freshly colonised litter is likely to be covered by export from more degraded litter. By re-allocating nitrogen to growing...

Interactions Following Contact Parasitism And Hyphal Interference

Parasitism between fungi has been widely utilized for practical purposes in the development of mitosporic fungi as biocontrol agents for use in horticulture and agriculture Whipps, 2001 , but has been infrequently studied in saprotrophic Basidiomycota. Host recognition by lectin or agglutinin-carbohydrate interaction is followed by penetration or appression to and growth along and around host hyphae Chet et al., 1997 Jeffries, 1997 Whipps, 2001 . Both enzymes and toxins are produced by the...

Direct Negative Effects On Invertebrates Killing By Basidiomycota

As far as we are aware, there are no reports of epizootics of arthropods caused by Basidiomycota, though there are undoubtedly examples of killing. There is certainly evidence that mycelium of Hypholoma fasciculare can kill Collembola in some situations T.D. Rotheray et al., unpublished . Mycelium of certain groups of Basidiomycota kill and subsequently utilize nematodes, often producing specialized killing structures, including Pleurotus species e.g. P. ostreatus, P. cornucopiae and P....

Persistent Mycelial Networks Sit and Wait Strategy

Saprotrophic cord- and rhizomorph-forming Basidiomycota produce extensive long-lived mycelial networks on the forest floor, eventually covering several square metres to many hectares Thompson and Rayner, 1982 Thompson and Boddy, 1988 Smith et al., 1992 Ferguson et al., 2003 Cairney, 2005 Figure 1e . The largest recorded to date is a genet of Armillaria ostoyae spanning 965 ha, with a maximum separation of 3,810 m and estimated as 1,900-8,650 years old Ferguson et al., 2003 . The true extent and...

Enzyme Production In Relation To Environmental Factors

The majority of both temperate and tropical basidiomycetes can produce a battery of hydrolytic enzymes to decompose cellulose, hemicellulose and sometimes also lignin Chapter 2 , including cellulases, pectinases, lignin peroxidise and laccases Ohga and Royse, 2001 Nyanhongo et al., 2002 Pointing et al., 2005 . Temperature stress can affect enzyme production by basidiomycetes. Studies on Trametes trogii showed that pectinolytic enzymes such as polymethyl-galacturonase, polygalacturanase and...

Direct Positive Effects Of Basidiomycota On Invertebrates Fruit Bodies And Mycelia As Food And Habitat

Mycelia are highly nutritious Swift and Boddy, 1984 see below . Not surprisingly, therefore, many invertebrates use fungi as a food source, either grazing directly on mycelia or fruit bodies, or indirectly by ingesting mycelium within decomposing litter Maraun et al., 2003 . Mycophagy is most prevalent amongst members of the phylum Arthropoda, although there are also many examples within the Mollusca, Enchytraeidae, Annelida, Collembola and Nematoda. For example, nematodes in the genus...

Decomposition of Lignin

Lignin is a branched polymer of substituted phenylpropane units joined by carbon-carbon and ether linkages. The monolignol precursors p-coumaryl, coniferyl and sinapyl alcohol form p-hydroxyphenyl-, guaiacyl-, and syringyl type units in lignin. The major linkage in lignin, the arylglycerol-p-aryl ether substructure, comprises about half of the total interunit linkages. Lignin of gym-nosperms contains mainly guaiacyl type units with some p-coumaryl units, whereas angiosperm lignin consists of...

Decomposition of Cellulose 211 Enzyme Catalyzed Decomposition

Cellulose is the main polymeric component of the plant cell wall and is the most abundant polysaccharide on earth. The chemical composition is simple it consists of D-glucose residues linked by 6-1,4-glycosidic bonds to form linear polymeric chains of over 10,000 glucose residues. Cellulose contains both highly crystalline regions where individual chains are linked to each other, and less-ordered amorphous regions Hon, 1994 . Although chemically simple, the extensive intermolecular bonding...

Mycelia Foraging Between Relatively Homogeneously Distributed Resources

Fungi have evolved a variety of foraging and behavioural responses to encounters with new resources. Fungi that utilize individual, relatively homogeneous resources, e.g. a leaf litter layer, effectively colonize as if individual components are simply parts of a larger resource. Mycelia form large patches with no particular pattern, e.g. Collybia spp. and Marasmius spp., or form fairy rings, e.g. Clitocybe nebularis Dowson et al., 1989 . Nothing is known of the network architecture of mycelial...

Gross Mycelial Contact

Gross mycelial contact is a 'catch-all' term covering interactions that do not involve parasitism, hyphal interference or interaction at a distance. When mycelia meet in agar or soil microcosms, dramatic changes in mycelial morphology occur, both in the vicinity of the antagonist and often elsewhere in the mycelium Figures 1 and 3 Boddy, 2000 Donnelly and Boddy, 2001 . Such changes include production of aerial tufts, barrages, mycelial cords Figure 1d and pigment Figure 1c . Replacement...

Fruit Bodies Their Production and Development in Relation to Environment

Gange, Edward G. Gange and Lynne Boddy 1.1 Fungal Morphogenesis 80 1.2 Morphogenetic Control Elements 84 1.3 Importance of Sexual Reproduction 85 2. Physiological Factors Favouring Fruit Body Production 86 2.4 Non-Nutritional Environmental Variables 91 2.5 Fruiting in the Natural Environment 94 4. Principles of Fungal Developmental Biology 98 4.1 Underlying Principles 98 4.2 Modelling Hyphal Growth and Fruit Body Formation 99 4.3 Data Mining Fungal Genomes 99 References 99...