Artificial Transformation

While a wide variety of bacteria can transform naturally, many species cannot take up DNA from an outside source. In some cases DNA can be forced into these cells by chemical, physical, or enzymatic treatment. This is especially important in genetic engineering, as artificial transformation is essential for the introduction of genetically altered sequences into recipient cells. One of the two most common methods is a chemical process where cells are heat-shocked, then treated with the DNA and a high concentration of calcium ions. The calcium ions precipitate the DNA on the surface of the cell, where the DNA is forced into the recipient.

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