C234

Electrophoresis capillary, 4:74 defined, 1:198 See also Gel electrophoresis Electroporation, 2:107, 4:123, 4:133 Electrospray ionization (ESI), 3:20, 3:208

Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, 3:174 Elongation factors, translation, 4:138

Eluting, defined, 2:165 EMBL database, 1:52 Embryonic development. See Development, genetic control of Embryonic stem cells. See Stem cells, embryonic Embryos, human cloning, 1:69, 1:158-160, 1:161 eight-cell (blastocyst) stage,

1163, 4:20, 4:23 frozen, 4:25, 4:26 genetic selection of, 4:29-30 personhood of, 4:27-28, 4:29 twins, 2:35-36, 4:155-156 See also Reproductive technology Embyrogenesis, defined, 4:182 Emergenesis, defined, 2:9 Emerin proteins, 3:125 Emerson, R.A., 3:10 "Emia," as suffix, 3:41 Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA), 2:93-94 Employment discrimination, genetic testing and, 1:18, 1:68, 2:92-94, 2:100, 2:177, 3:4, 3:193 EMS (ethyl methanesulfonate), 1:19 Endangered species cloning, 1:158, 1:161, 1:164 endangered population status,

1:186, 1:190 evolutionary relationship determinations, 1:188, 1:189 extinction vortex, 1:188 genetic diversity, 1:187, 3:167 illegal trading in, 1:186,

1:189-190 inbreeding and, 2:190 population bottlenecks,

1:188-189 relocation and reintroduction,

1:186-187, 1:190 threatened population categories, 1:186

viability analyses, 1:187 Endochondral ossification, 2:130 Endocrine cells, hormone secretion, 2:66

Endocrine disorders, 2:129-130

Endocrine glands, function, 2:160 Endocrine system chemicals that disrupt, 2:164 function, 2:159-160 location of hormones, 2:160 metabolic diseases, 3:42 multiple endocrine neoplasia, 4:153

Endocytosis, defined, 4:166 Endogenous, defined, 1:242, 4:41 Endometriosis, defined, 4:19 Endometrium, defined, 1:169 Endonuclease enzymes apurinic/apyrimidinic, 1:244 defined, 3:47 DNA repair, 3:114 function, 3:112, 3:113 structure preferences, 3:112-113 See also Restriction enzymes Endophenotypes defined, 4:2 example, 4:2 Endoplasmic reticulum (ER), 1:105 defined, 1:117, 3:202, 4:10 structure and function, 1:112-113, 3:120, 3:121, 3:125, 3:202, 4:43-44 Endoribonuclease enzymes, 4:57-58 Endoscopic, defined, 1:168 Endospores, of bacteria, 2:12, 2:14 Endosymbionts chloroplasts as, 1:112, 2:12,

intracellular, inheritance of, 2:198

mitochondria as, 1:112, 2:12, 2:86, 2:116, 2:194-196, 3:52, 3:55, 3:56-57 serial endosymbiotic theory, 3:56-57 Endotoxins, eubacteria, 2:12 Enhancer DNA sequences of antibody genes, 2:182 function, 2:54, 4:114 gene expression role, 2:64 impact on gene therapy, 2:77 mutations in, 2:27, 2:30, 2:54 Enterobacteriaciae, 2:10 Environmental activists, damage caused by, 4:132 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

biotechnology regulations, 1:11 oil spill cleanups, 1:59 Environment-gene interactions. See Gene-environment interactions

Enzyme replacement therapy Gaucher disease, 3:45 metabolic diseases, 3:39 mucopolysaccharidosis, 3:45 SCID, 4:75, 4:77 Enzyme testing, Tay-Sachs disease,

4:101-102 Enzymes to activate procarcinogens, 1:99 combinatorial chemistry to synthesize, 1:175, 1:175 defined, 1:45, 2:15, 3:2, 4:48 to detoxify poisons, 1:45-46 evolutionary origin, 2:22-25 extremozymes, 1:38, 1:199 genes as, 3:102-103 industrial, genetically engineered,

1:63-64, 1:154, 4:134-135 metabolism and, 3:37-38 mutations, and metabolic disorders, 3:38 one gene-one enzyme model,

3:76, 3:103 proteins as, 2:52 ribosomes as, 4:44-46 ribozymes as, 2:25 SDS-PAGE to study, 2:47-48 See also Proteins; specific enzymes EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)

biotechnology regulations, 1:11 oil spill cleanups, 1:59 Epidemiology/epidemiologists, 2:6-7

defined, 1:101, 2:56, 3:217, 4:94 methods used, 2:56-57 public health role, 3:217-218 statistical geneticist role, 4:94-95 Epidermal growth factor, 2:66 Epididymis, defined, 4:21 Epigenetic modifications, X-chro-

mosome inactivation, 4:176 Epilepsy, disease symptoms, 2:168 Epinephrine, function, 2:160 Epistasis, 2:7-9

Bombay phenotype, 2:8, 2:9 as complex trait, 1:178-179,

1:180, 2:9 defined, 2:184, 4:3 distinguished from dominance, 2:7

DNA methylation as, 3:46 interactions among proteins, 2:9, 2:207

mouse color coat, 2:8, 2:8 nonpenetrance, 2:8 quantitative traits, 4:1-3

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