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For Your Reference v

List of Contributors xiii

Quantitative Traits 1

Reading Frame 4

Recombinant DNA 5

Repetitive DNA Sequences 7

Replication 12

Reproductive Technology 19

Reproductive Technology: Ethical Issues . 26

Restriction Enzymes 31

Retrovirus 34

Reverse Transcriptase 39

Ribosome 42

Ribozyme 44

RNA 46

RNA Interference 54

RNA Processing 57

Rodent Models 60

Roundworm: Caenorhabditis elegans 62

Sanger, Fred 64

Science Writer 65

Selection 67

Sequencing DNA 69

Severe Combined Immune Deficiency ... 74

Sex Determination 78

Sexual Orientation 83

Signal Transduction 85

Speciation 91

Statistical Geneticist 93

Statistics 95

Tay-Sachs Disease 98

Technical Writer 102

Telomere 104

Transcription 106

Transcription Factors 112

Transduction 117

Transformation 121

Transgenic Animals 124

Transgenic Microorganisms 127

Transgenic Organisms: Ethical Issues .. 129

Transgenic Plants 132

Translation 135

Transplantation 139

Transposable Genetic Elements 143

Triplet Repeat Disease 148

Tumor Suppressor Genes 153

Twins 155

Viroids and Virusoids 162

Virus 164

Watson, James 171

X Chromosome 173

Y Chromosome 176

Yeast 179

Zebrafish 181

Photo Credits 185

Glossary 189

Topical Outline 207

Cumulative Index 213

Quantitative Traits

Quantitative traits are those that vary continuously. This is in contrast to qualitative traits, in which the phenotype is discrete and can take on one of only a few different values. Examples of quantitative traits include height, weight, and blood pressure. There is no single gene for any of these traits, instead it is generally believed that continuous variation in a trait such as blood pressure is partly due to DNA sequence variations at multiple genes, or loci. Such loci are referred to as quantitative trait loci (QTL). Much of how we study and characterize quantitative traits can be attributed to the work of Ronald Fisher and Sewall Wright, accomplished during the first half of the twentieth century.

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