Oooc oc

Panic disorder, genetic components,

3:213 Pap smears, 3:175

Papaya, genetically engineered, 2:109 Papaya ringspot potyvirus, 1:58 Paracentric inversions, 1:123 Paracrine hormones, 2:160 Paralogous genes and pseudogenes,

3:210 Paralogs, 2:158 Paramecium sp.

C value paradox, 2:114 intracellular symbionts of, 2:198 ploidy, 2:115 Parental genomic imprinting, 2:183 Parkinson's disease and cigarette smoking, 4:161 DNA microarray analysis, 1:228 protein conformation role, 3:190 stem cell research tools, 2:5-6 symptoms, 4:160 twin studies, 4:159, 4:160-161 Particle-mediated transformation,

4:132-133 Partitioning, random of mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes, 2:195, 2:197 of plasmids, 2:198 Parvovirus, characteristics, 4:165 The Passing of the Great Race (M.

Grant), 2:19 Patent agents and attorneys,

1:42-43, 3:138 Patent depositories, 3:138 Patenting genes, 3:136-138 history, 1:72-73, 3:136-137, 4:129

Human Genome Project, 2:174,

2:175-176 international protection, 3:138 legal issues, 3:3-4 procedure, 3:138 requirements, 3:137-138 Patents, defined, 3:136 Paternity anonymous, assisted reproduction, 4:28 DNA profiling to identify, 1:238 Pathogenicity islands, 1:27-28 Pathogenic/pathogenicity defined, 1:27, 2:124, 3:151, 4:134 virulence plasmids, 3:151 Pathogens changes, immune system response to, 2:178 defined, 1:57, 2:10, 4:34 opportunistic, 2:151, 2:155

See also Eubacteria; Prions; Retroviruses; specific pathogens; Viruses

Pathology/pathological, defined,

1:16, 1:171, 4:94 Pathophysiology, defined, 1:39 Pauling, Linus, 3:95, 3:200 PBR322, cloning vector, 4:128 PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), bioremediation to remove, 1:59 PCR. See Polymerase chain reaction Peach latent mosaic viroid, 4:163 Pearson, Karl, 3:102, 4:95 Peas (garden), Mendelian genetics,

1:146-148, 3:30-31, 3:32-36 Pedigrees, 3:138-142 confidentiality of, 3:142 defined, 3:7

degrees of relationship, 3:141 distinguished from genograms, 3:139

drawing and recording,

3:140-141 of ethnic backgrounds, 3:141-142 in Mendelian genetics, 3:36 sample, 3:140

symbols, 3:139, 3:140, 3:141 terminology, 3:140 uses, 3:139-140 Y chromosomes as tools, 3:65, 4:178

Penetrance/nonpenetrance age-dependent, 1:18 epistatic interactions, 2:8 incomplete, 2:201, 2:205 reduced, 2:61, 3:214 Penicillin, resistance to, 1:26, 1:27,

1:185, 2:11, 4:69 Peptide bonds defined, 4:137

and protein structure, 3:197,

3:200, 4:138 ribosomal RNA role, 4:42, 4:137 Peptide mass fingerprinting, 3:208 Peptide sequencing. See Protein sequencing Peptides defined, 3:20, 4:85 fusion, 4:167 Peptidoglycan, in cell walls, 1:36, 2:11

Peptidyl (P) site, in translation, 4:138

Peptidyl-transferase center, 4:138 Percutaneous, defined, 2:97 Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, prenatal genetic testing, 2:97-98

Pericentric inversions, 1:123-124 Perkin-Elmer sequencers, 2:173 Peroxisome metabolism, disorders,

3:41, 3:45-46 Peroxisomes, 1:105 Perutz, Max, 4:151 Pesticides biopesticides, 1:57-59 damage to natural enemies, 1:57 resistance to, 1:11 role in disease, 1:214 Pets cloned, 1:158-159, 1:159 illegal trade in, 1:186 Pfam database, 3:209 PG (polygalacturonase) gene, 1:29 PGD. See Preimplantation genetic diagnosis The phage group, 1:204 Phagocytic, defined, 1:33 Pharmaceutical scientists,

3:142-144, 3:145 Pharmacogenetics and pharmacoge-nomics, 3:144-147 antisense nucleotide tools, 1:29,

1:30-31 apoptosis studies, 1:33 Arabidopsis research, 1:35 bacterial genome mapping studies, 1:142 bioinformatics tools, 1:53-54,

1:55-56 biopharmaceuticals, 2:125 cardiovascular disease treatments, 1:103

cost and access concerns, 1:69 DNA microarray tools, 3:146 gene cloning tools, 1:153-154,

1:163-164 genetically engineered products, 1:10-11, 1:63-64, 1:72, 1:74, 4:5-7

genomics industry role, 2:124-125 Human Genome Project contributions, 2:121-122, 2:171, 3:146-147 pharmaceutical scientist role,

3:142-144 predisposition predictions, 3:146, 3:148

side effects, preventing, 2:118-120, 2:122, 3:144-146, 4:22

signal transduction targets, 4:91 SNP comparisons, 3:146-147 transgenic animal models, 2:106, 4:127

See also Drugs (medications); Genomic medicine

Phenocopies, defined, 2:61 Phenotypes

Bombay, 2:8, 2:9 defined, 1:21, 2:8, 3:9, 4:1 endophenotypes, 4:2, 4:2 Hardy-Weinberg predictions from, 2:135 mutation manifestations, 1:35, 1:75, 1:155, 1:156-157, 2:43 QTL effects on, 4:2-3 simple vs. complex, 1:177, 2:55, 2:60-61 See also Genotype, phenotype and; specific diseases and traits Phenylalanine (Phe)

genetic code, 2:85, 4:137 and PKU, 3:42-43 Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), 1:82, 2:55, 2:99, 3:42-43, 3:176, 4:5

Phenylketonuria (PKU)

as frameshift mutation, 4:5 gene-environment interactions,

2:55-56 Guthrie test, 3:176 maternal condition and, 1:82 newborn screening, 2:99, 2:119,

symptoms and treatment, 2:202, 3:40, 3:42-43, 3:176 Phenylthio-carbamide (PTC), ability to taste, 2:191 Pheromones, defined, 2:158 Philadelphia chromosome, 4:154 Phimthop, Thawiphop, 1:78 PhiX174 bacteriophage, 3:135, 4:64 Phosphatase enzymes in DNA sequencing, 4:70 post-translational phosphoryla-

tion by, 3:178 signal transduction role, 4:87 Phosphate groups defined, 1:105, 4:70 and DNA structure, 1:105, 2:50, 2:51, 3:115, 3:116, 3:117 Phosphatidylcholine, function, 1:242 Phosphodiester bonds defined, 1:244, 3:112 and DNA structure, 1:216, 1:216,

1:244, 3:117-118, 3:118 hydrolysis of, 3:113, 3:114 lyase reactions, 3:113 and RNA structure, 4:47, 4:49 Phosphoglycerate kinase 2, 2:28 Phospholipase C, signal transduction role, 4:89

Phospholipids, in cell membranes,

1:109, 2:12, 3:55 Phosphorimidazolide, and ribose-phosphate backbone, 2:23, 2:24 Phosphorous, toxicity, 1:61 Phosphorylation of antibiotics, 3:17 by ATP, 3:178, 3:204, 4:87 by CREB, 4:89 defined, 1:53, 2:62, 3:51, 4:86 DNA replication initiation role, 4:18

by GDP and GTP, 4:88, 4:89-90 of proteins, 1:105-107, 2:62, 3:20, 3:178, 3180, 3:203-204, 3:205, 4:86-87, 4:87, 4:111 of resistance genes, 3:16-17 of RNA polymerase, 4:113 RTK pathway, 4:87-88 signal transduction role, 4:86-87, 4:87

See also Kinase enzymes Phosporimadazote, nucleotide linking role, 2:24 Photopigments, role in color vision,

1:170-172 Photoproducts, as mutagens, 1:244 Photoreceptors

Arabidopsis research, 1:36 role in vision, 1:170-172 Photosynthesis by chloroplast ancestor, 2:195 chloroplast role, 1:112, 2:108, 2:194

Phototrophs, described, 2:13 Phylogenetic Species Concept, 1:189 Phylogenetic/phylogeneticists, defined, 1:36, 4:41, 4:146 Physical maps (genes), 1:155, 1:156 Physician, defined, 3:147 Physician scientists, 3:147-148 Phytochelatins, 1:60 Phytophthora infestans, potatoes resistant to, 2:108 Phytoremediation, 1:60-61 Picornaviruses, structure, 4:165 Pigs cloned, 4:143

knock-out, for organ transplants, 41 40, 4:142-143 Pilus, sex, 1:183, 1183, 1184, 2:15, 3:151

Pineapples, genetically engineered, 2:107

PIP-2 lipids, signal transduction role, 4:89 PIQ (performance ability) intelligence scores, 2:208

Pituitary glands and endocrine disorders, 2:129 function, 2:160

suppressing, assisted reproduction, 4:21 PKA regulatory II^ mice, 1:5 PKA (protein kinase), signal trans-

duction role, 4:89 PKC (protein kinase C), signal transduction role, 4:89 PKC, mice, 1:5 PKU. See Phenylketonuria Placenta chromosomal mosaicism, 3:79 stem cells, 4:30 Plague, as bioterrorism tool, 1:69-70 Plant genetic engineers, 3:149-150 Plant molecular farming, 4:134-135 Plaque, and cardiovascular disease, 1:102 Plasma membranes defined, 1:113, 3:202, 4:89 of eubacteria, 2:12 structure and function, 1:105, 1:109, 1:113, 3:202 Plasmids, 3:150-153

cleaved by restriction enzymes,

conjugative (fertility factors), 1:140-142, 1:182-185, 1:184, 2:117, 3:151 defined, 1:27, 1:222, 3:16, 4:128 degradative and catabolic, 3:151 for DNA vaccines, 1:254-255 electrophoresis to separate, 2:49 as gene therapy vectors, 2:78 inheritance of, 2:198, 3:151 mobilization, 3:152 promiscuous, 1:183, 1:185 in recombinant organisms, 1:71,

2:15, 3:152 relaxed, stringent, and incompatible, 3:151 replication of, 1:152-153, 2:15,

3:151-152 resistance (R), 1:27, 1:140, 1:185, 2:117, 2:198, 3:16-17, 3:151, 4:69

structure and function, 1:140-142, 1:144, 2:14-15, 2:116, 3:150-151 Ti, 2:107

of transgenic bioremediators, 1:61

3:152 virulence, 3:151

Pregnancy Guide

Pregnancy Guide

A Beginner's Guide to Healthy Pregnancy. If you suspect, or know, that you are pregnant, we ho pe you have already visited your doctor. Presuming that you have confirmed your suspicions and that this is your first child, or that you wish to take better care of yourself d uring pregnancy than you did during your other pregnancies; you have come to the right place.

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