Oooc oc

DNA purification (continued) in molecular anthropology, 3:68 procedures, 3:220-221 uses, 3:220 DNA, recombinant, 4:5-7

in Alzheimer's disease studies, 1:16

as biotechnology tool, 1:9-11,

1:63, 2:107, 4:6-7 conjugation and, 1:142, 1:185, 2:15

drugs derived from, 1:69, 1:72,

2:125, 4:6-7 ethical issues, 3:152, 4:5-7 fruit fly transposons, 2:43 for gene cloning, 1:152-153 as gene therapy tool, 4:5-6 as mapping tool, 1:141-142, 3:7, 4:6

molecular biologist role, 3:71 patents on, 3:137-138 for PCRs, 3:157 plasmid vectors, 3:152 research history, 1:71, 4:5 restriction enzyme tools, 4:31, 4:33

rodent models, 4:61 in selectable markers, 3:17 techniques, 4:5-6 for vaccines, 1:253, 4:6 See also Restriction enzymes DNA repair, 1:239-248 apoptosis and, 1:32, 1:33 bacteriophage replication and,

cytochrome P450s, 3:89 deoxyribonuclease enzyme role,

3:113-114 DNA mismatch repair,

1:246-248, 3:114 double-strand breaks, 1:248 future research, 1:248 helicase and, 1:3 in mitochondria, 3:79 mutation rate role, 3:100 mutations, role in creating, 3:95, 3:100

nucleotide excision repair,

1:244-246, 1:245 polymerases and, 1:230, 1:232 proofreading exonucleases, 1:231,

1:232, 3:113-114, 4:17, 4:18 recombinational, 1:248 regulation of, 1:105 of Y chromosomes, 4:177

DNA repair genes, mutations, 1:95,

1:99, 1:169, 1:241-242 DNA repetitive sequences, 4:7-12 applications, 4:11 concatamers, 4:118 in eukaryotic cells, 1:132 gene evolution role, 2:28, 2:114-115, 4:9, 4:10-11 in higher eukaryotes, 2:115 in human genome, 4:7 in kinase gene, 3:153-154 in prokaryotes, 2:117 retropseudogenes, 4:10 STRPs, 3:6, 3:14 in telomeres, 4:8-9, 4:10, 4:104, 4:105

See also Alu sequences; Short tandem repeats (microsatellites); Transposable genetic elements; Triplet repeat diseases DNA replication, 4:12-19

base substitution mutations, 3:95 defined, 1:19, 2:21, 4:5 directionality, 3:117-118, 3:155-156, 4:12, 4:15-16, 4:15, 4:135

DNA coiling in nucleus, 3:122 early studies, 1:251-252 energy requirements, 1:111 impact of mutagens, 1:19 leading and lagging strands, 4:14,

4:15-16, 4:15 nuclear envelope breakdown and re-forming, 3:59, 3:120 Okazaki fragments, 4:14, 4:15,

4:16, 4:17, 4:18 by plasmids, 3:151-152 recombinant DNA, 4:5-6 regulation of, 4:17-18 replication fork (unwinding),

4:13-15 of retroviruses, 4:36-37, 4:37 as semiconservative, 4:12 See also Cell cycle; DNA poly-merases; Meiosis; Mitosis; Transcription DNA replication, eukaryotes Cdc6, 4:18

distinguished from prokaryotes, 4:17

DNA polymerases, 4:17 Dna2 protein, 4:17 duration, 4:12 Fen1 protein, 4:17 MCM proteins, 4:18 ORC, 4:13, 4:13

origins of, 4:12-13

origins of DNA replication, 4:13

pre-replicative complexes, 4:18

single-strand binding protein

(RPA), 4:14 of telomeres, 4:17 topoisomerase, 4:14-15, 4:18 DNA replication, prokaryotes distinguished from eukaryotes, 4:17

DNA gyrase, 4:14-15, 4:18 DNA polymerase III, 4:13,

4:16-17, 4:18 dnaA protein, 4:13, 4:18 duration, 4:12 origins of, 4:13 primers, 4:16

replication fork (unwinding),

4:14, 4:14 single-strand binding protein (SSB), 4:13, 4:14, 4:18 DNA, selfish. See Transposable genetic elements DNA sequencing, 4:69-74

bioinformatics tools, 1:52-56, 2:29

BLAST applications, 3:196 blotting procedures, 1:86-89, 1:152

chain termination method, 1:43,

1:198, 4:71-73, 4:72 computational biologist role, 1:181

to confirm genetic code accuracy, 2:86

cycle sequencing technique,

1:198-199 cystic fibrosis gene, 1:201-202 databases, 1:52-54, 2:123-124, 2:156, 2:173, 2:174, 2:176, 2:212 defined, 1:35 to detect SNPs, 3:162 DNA library tools, 1:222-224 DNA purification tools,

3:220-221 electrophoresis tools, 2:49-50 with fluorescent dyes, 4:72-73, 4:73

footprinting to study, 1:221 gene cloning tools, 1:152,

1:154-157 genomics industry role,

2:123-125 genomics role, 2:120-122 high-throughput screening tools, 2:150

homeobox sequence, 1:208

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