Oooc oc

T cells (continued) diversity of, 2:179 function, 2:153, 2:178, 2:181, 4:38

interactions with MHC, 2:181, 2:183, 4:139-140, 4:141 T4 bacteriophage, structure,

4:165-166 Tamoxifen, and breast cancer, 1:90 Tandem repeats. See Short tandem repeats

Taq DNA polymerase, 1:38, 1:199,

3:157 Taq enzymes, 1:199 Tat proteins, HIV-produced, 2:153 TATA-binding protein (TBP), function, 4:112 Tatum, Edward, 1:141, 1:185, 3:102, 3:103

Taxonomists, defined, 4:91 Taxonomy (systematics)

conservation genetics applications, 1:186-189, 1:190 defined, 1:190

DNA and protein sequence indicators, 2:156-158 of eubacteria, 2:16 molecular anthropology role,

3:63-70 molecular systematics, 2:158 polymorphisms as tools, 3:163 restriction enzyme tools, 4:33-34 transposons as indicators, 4:146 See also Speciation Tay, Warren, 4:98 Tay-Sachs disease, 4:98-102 in Ashkenazic Jews, 2:37, 2:99-100, 3:174, 4:98, 4:101-102 clinical features, 2:202, 4:98-100 founder effect, 2:37, 3:174, 4:101 gene therapy, 4:102 genetic testing, 2:96, 2:99-100, 3:174, 3:177, 3:184, 4:98, 4:101-102 heterozygote advantage, 4:101 HEXA and HEXB genes, 4:98,

inheritance patterns, 2:203, 4:98 molecular biology of, 4:100 mouse models, 4:102 prenatal diagnosis, 4:98, 4:100, 4:102

symptoms and treatment, 3:40, 3:45

TB. See Tuberculosis TBP (TATA-binding protein), function, 4:112

T-cell leukemia, 4:38, 4:165, 4:169 T-cytotoxic cells, 4:140 T-DNA (DNA, transformed), 1:35 Technical writers, 4:102-104 Telomerase enzymes function, 1:135, 4:41, 4:105-106 hTERT, 4:106 Telomerase gene, mutations, 1:96 Telomere shortening aging and, 1:3, 1:7, 1:160, 1:164,

4:105, 4:106 cell senescence and, 1:96 cloning implications, 1:160,

1:164 discovery, 4:105 and progeria, 1:3 Telomeres, 4:104-106

capping/uncapping proteins, 4:105

defined, 1:7, 2:115, 3:121, 4:17 discovery, 4:105 function, 1:144, 4:104-105 repetitive sequences, 4:8-9, 4:10,

4:104, 4:105 replication of, 4:17, 4:104 structure, 1:135, 1:144, 3:121,

4:104, 4:105 terminal restriction fragments,

4:104 T-loops, 4:104 Telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP), 4:106 Telophase

II, meiosis, 3:27 mitosis, 3:59

Temperature extremes, Archaea adaptations to, 1:36-38 Templates defined, 3:155, 4:48 for fluorescent automated sequencers, 4:73 vs. nontemplate strands, 4:107 for PCR reactions, 3:155-158 in transcription, 4:48-49, 4:54, 4:107

Tenets, defined, 3:177 Teratogens alcohol, 1:81 congenital syphilis, 1:81 defined, 1:80 industrial toxins, 1:77 isotretinoin (Accutane), 1:80-81 medications, 1:80-81 recreational drugs, 1:81

risk for birth defects, 1:80 rubella, 1:81 thalidomide, 1:80 in tobacco, 1:77 toxoplasmosis and, 1:81 Terminal restriction fragments

(TRF), 4:104 Termination factors, 4:110 Termination sites/terminators. See

Stop codons Terrorist attacks, September 11,

1:70, 1:234 Test crosses, 1:147-148 Testes cancer, 1:25, 1:93, 4:177 development, AIS and, 1:23, 1:25 development, normal human,

1:21-23, 4:78-79, 4:79, 4:80-81 function, 2:160, 3:24, 3:60 Mullerian ducts, 4:79, 4:79 Testicular cords, 4:78 Testis-determining factor, 4:79-80 Testosterone gene expression role, 2:67,

2:161-163 as Klinefelter's syndrome treatment, 1:79 regulation, AIS, 1:23-26 regulation, normal development, 1:21-23

signal transduction role, 1:110 testes and, 2:160, 4:79 transcription factors and, 4:115 Tetanus (lockjaw), causal organism,

2:13 Tetracycline resistance to, 1:26, 1:28, 1:185 ribosomal targets, 2:16 Tetrads, in crossing over, 1:194 Tetrahymena gene activation, 1:138 as model organism, 3:61 telomere sequence, 1:135, 4:104 Tetraploidy, consequences, 3:97 TFII-D (transcription factor D for RNA polymerase II), 2:63, 4:112-113, 4:113 Thalassemias alpha, 2:140 beta, 2:140

blood transfusions to treat, 2:140 bone marrow transplants,

2:140-141 causes, 2:139-140, 2:148 gene therapy, 2:140 inheritance patterns, 2:140, 2:148 intermedia, 2:140

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