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Plasmin, role in blood clotting, 1:72 Plasminogen activating inhibitor 1

(PAI-1), 1:8 Plasminogen activators cost and access concerns, 1:69 from genetically engineered bacteria, 1:63 tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), 1:72 Plasmodium falciparum, and malaria, 2:148

Plastics, industrial, genetically engineered, 4:135 Plastids, defined, 3:149 Platelets, cancerous tumors, 1:94 Pleiotropy, 3:153-154 albinism, 2:128, 2:206 cystic fibrosis, 2:206 defined, 2:105 as eugenics rebuttal, 2:20 impact on hormone regulation, 3:154

myotonic muscular dystrophy, 3:85

sickle-cell disease, 3:153 signaling pathway defects, 3:153-154 Ploidy defined, 2:115 haplodiploid, 2:113 monosomy, 1:121, 1:123, 3:109 polyploid, 2:28, 2:69, 2:113-114,

3:97, 3:163-167 tetraploid, 3:97, 3:165, 3:166 triploid, 3:164-166, 3164 See also Diploid; Haploid; Tri-somy

Pluripotency, of embryonic stem cells, 2:3 PML bodies (PODs), 3:120,

3:124-125 Pneumococcus bacteria, 2:167 transforming factors, 1:250, 1:250 Pneumonia antibiotic resistance, 1:27 causal organism, 2:167 pneumocystis, 2:155 transformation studies, 4:122, 4:123-124 Point estimations, 4:96 Point mutations base substitutions, 3:95 defined, 2:26-27 frameshift mutations, 2:86, 3:95 gene evolution role, 2:26-30, 2:27

growth hormone gene, 2:129

mitochondrial diseases, 3:54 and proto-oncogene activation, 1:99-100, 3:128-129 Pol gene, 4:35, 4:36, 4:144, 4:145 Pol I, II, and II enzymes, 4:55 POLA (polymerase alpha) gene, 1:231

Polar bodies, defined, 3:29 Polar, defined, 3:200 Polarity, of eukaryotes. See Axis development Polarity, of viruses, 4:165, 4:166 POLB (polymerase beta) gene, 1:232 POLD1 (polymerase delta 1) gene,

1:231-232 POLE1 (polymerase epsilon 1) gene,

1:231-232 POLG (polymerase gamma) gene, 1:232

Poliomyelitis, causal organism, 4:165 Poliovirus characteristics, 4:165 infection outcomes, 4:169 replication, 4:166, 4:168 vaccine to combat, 4:170-171 Pollen chloroplast genes lacking in, 2:108 defined, 1:34

and Mendelian ratios, 1:130 Pollination artificial, 1:147 open, 2:146

outcrossing, 1:35, 1:147, 3:9 selfing, 1:147, 2:189, 3:9, 3:33-34 Polly the sheep, 1:163-164 Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), 2:46-47 2-D, 2:48-49, 2:48, 3:207-208 SDS, 2:47-48 Polyadenylated repeats, 4:9, 4:145 Polyadenylation (poly A) addition, function, 4:59 Polyadenylation signal, 2:53 Polyamines, in bacteria, 1:141 Poly-A-polymerase, 2:53 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), bioremediation to remove, 1:59 Polycistronic mRNAs, 3:135 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

(PAHs), 1:59, 1:99 Polygalacturonase (PG) gene, 1:29 Polygenic traits. See Complex traits Polyglutamine disorders (CAGn repeats), 4:150, 4:151-152 Polylinkers, 3:152 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 3:154-159

Archaea research tools, 1:38 in conservation genetics, 1:187,

1:190-191 contamination concerns, 3:158 defined, 1:177, 1:235 degenerate primers, 3:158-159 in DNA profiling, 1:73 DNA purification tools,

3:220-221 in gene cloning, 1:153 as genotyping tool, 3:161 in HPLC analysis, 2:166 Human Genome Project role, 2:172

as molecular anthropology tool, 3:68

primers, designing, 3:155-156 procedures, 3:154-155, 3155,

3:156-158, 3156 reverse-transcription, 3:159 in SELEX analysis, 1:177 in STR analysis, 1:235-236 to study chimeras, 2:5 Polymerases defined, 1:19, 3:221, 4:104 See also DNA polymerases; RNA polymerases Polymerization, defined, 1:230, 3:43,

4:109 Polymers defined, 2:11, 3:112, 4:107 See also Transcription; Translation Polymorphic, defined, 1:188, 2:59 Polymorphic markers, 2:58, 2:59,

2:60, 3:6, 3:7 Polymorphisms, defined, 2:60 Polymorphisms, DNA, 3:159-163 as agricultural biotechnology tool, 3:162 Alu sequences, 4:145-146, 4146 balanced, 1:45-46 banding techniques to identify,

1:135 cause of, 3:160 defined, 1:235, 2:52, 3:1, 4:11 as disease study tool, 3:162 distinguished from multiple alle-

les, 3:82 distinguished from mutations, 2:126

in DNA profiling, 1:234-235, 3:163

drug development role, 2:124 gel electrophoresis tools,

3:160-161, 3:161 genotyping, 3:160-161 HPLC to study, 2:166-167, 2:166

origin of term, 3:159 PCR tools, 3:161 public health role, 3:216 RFLPs, 1:236, 3:6, 3:13-14,

3:161-162, 3:161, 4:34 selectively neutral, 3:160 STRPs, 3:6, 3:14 as taxonomy tool, 3:163 VNTRs, 1:236, 3:6, 3:14, 3:162, 4:8-9

Y chromosomes, 4:178 See also Alleles, multiple; Short tandem repeats (microsatellites) Polymorphisms, single-nucleotide (SNPs)

disease detection role, 2:118-119,

2:122, 2:166-167 distinguished from mutations, 2:118

in DNA comparison studies, 3:65 in human genome, 3:162 individual genetic variation and, 2:191

in linkage analyses, 3:6, 3:14 as pharmacogenomics tool, 3:146-147 Polypeptide backbone, post-transla-tional modifications, 3:179, 3:179, 3:181 Polypeptides defined, 1:13, 2:84, 3:105, 4:100 folding by chaperones, 1:116-118 heavy and light, in antibodies,

2:179, 2:179, 3:202 one gene-one polypeptide model,

3:103 phytochelatins, 1:60 Rh, 1:86 synthesis, 1:13 Polyploidy, 3:163-167, 3:164 allopolyploid, 3:165-166 in amphibians, 3:165 autopolyploid, 3:165-166 causes, 3:163-164 chromosome numbers, range,

2:113-114 defined, 2:69, 4:93 gene evolution role, 2:28, 2:69 genetic analysis of, 3:166 in humans, 3:164-165 mutations, consequences, 3:97 in plants, 3:165-166, 3:165 and sex determination, 3:164 sympatric speciation, 4:93 See also Aneuploidy Polyspermy, consequences, 2:35, 3:163-164

Polytene chromosomes, 1:126, 1:136-137, 1:136, 2:43-44 Poplar trees, transgenic, 1:61, 4:132 Population of Bombay, 3:173 defined, 2:133, 3:171 Population bottlenecks, 3:167-171 ancient population sizes,

3:167-168 cheetahs, 1:189

colonization and climatic, 3:169 consequences, 1:188-189 defined, 1:188

and expansions, human evolution, 3:168-169 genetic drift, 2:95-96 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium,

2:136 right whales, 1:189 technological and social influences, 3:169-170 See also Founder effect Population genetics, 3:171-174 balanced polymorphism, 1:45-46 conservation biology, 1:186-190 disease prevalence studies, 1:202-203, 1:213-215, 3:194-195 extranuclear inheritance role,

2:194 of eye color, 2:32 gene flow, 2:70-71 gene pools, 3:171-172 genetic drift, 2:36-37, 2:70-71,

2:94-96, 3:63, 3:174 genetic structure, 3:172 to identify disease genes, 2:168 inbred population studies,

2:190-191 mutation role, 3:93 population-based genomics companies, 2:124 quantitative traits, 4:1-3 speciation, 4:91-93 statistics tools, 4:95-98 twin registries, 4:159-161 Y chromosomes as tools,

4:178-179 See also Founder effect; Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Population parameters, 4:96 Population screening, 3:175-178 for bipolor disorder, 3:215 for carriers, 3:176, 3:177 criteria for, 3:175 for cystic fibrosis, 1:202-203 vs. diagnostic tests, 3:175 epidemiology, 2:6-7

ethical issues, 3:177-180 for hemophilia, 2:143 for hypothyroidism, 3:176-177 to identify carriers, 2:99-100 for inherited disorders, 3:174,

3:175-176 public health role, 3:217-219 for sickle-cell disease, 3:177, 3:219

See also Newborn screening Population studies defined, 2:168

See also Family studies; Population genetics Porin proteins, 1:27, 1:28 Positional cloning cystic fibrosis gene, 1:202 defined, 1:202

as gene discovery tool, 2:59-60 procedure, 1:155-157 Positive selection marker systems,

3:16-17, 4:69 Pospiviroidae family, 4:163, 4:163 Posterior, defined, 2:32 Post-translational control, 2:62, 3:178-182, 3:203-204 amino acid alterations,

3:178-179, 3:180, 3:205-206 analysis of protein structures, 3:71

detection tools, 3:20 exteins, 3:179, 3:181 inteins, 3:179, 3:180 molecular chaperones and, 1:116-118 polypeptide backbone alterations,

3:179, 3:179, 3:181 RNA interference, 1:31, 4:52-54 Potassium channel genes, 1:12, 1:13-14

Potassium ions, in ribozymes, 4:45 Potato spindle tuber viroid, 4:163 Potatoes, genetically engineered,

2:107, 2:108, 4:130-131 Potts, Sir Percival, 1:98 Power of a study, 4:97 Poxviruses (Poxviridae)

characteristics, 2:117, 4:164 replication, 4:166, 4:167 PPD skin test, for tuberculosis, 3:175

Prader-Willi syndrome, 1:123,

2:185, 2:205 PRb (retinoblastoma protein), phos-

phorylation, 1:106-107, 1:106 Prebiotic, defined, 2:23 Precursors, defined, 1:63, 2:76, 4:135

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