Oooc oc

Trypanosome brucei, mRNA editing, 1:13

Trypanosomes, African, 4:145 Tryptophan (Trp)

operons, 3:132, 3:134 TSC1 and TSC2 genes, and tuberous sclerosis, 4:153 Tschermak, Erich, 3:102 TSE (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies), 3:188-190 TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), and endocrine disorders, 2:129-130 TSPY genes, 4:177 Tubal embryo transfer, 4:23 Tuberculosis (TB)

antibiotic resistance, 1:26, 1:28, 1:185

DNA vaccines, 1:255 eugenics and, 2:17 genetic components, 1:213 PPD skin test, 3:175 Tay-Sachs disease and, 4:101 Tuberous sclerosis, genomic screening to identify, 2:168 Tumor suppressor genes, 4:152-155 apoptosis and, 4:154 cancer and, 1:29, 1:91, 1:95,

1:99-100, 1:155 discovery, 3:130 function, 4:152 , 4:154, 4:169 loss-of-function mechanisms,

4:154-155 multiplicative effects, 1:180 mutations of, 3:98, 4:152-155 as recessive, 3:130 sequential activation of, 3:131 Tumor suppressor genes, specific APC, 1:167-168, 4:153 BRCA1 and BRCA2, 4:153 CDKN1C, 4:153 MEN1, 4:153

3:130, 4:153-155, 4:169 TSC1 and TSC2, 4:153 Tumors benign vs. malignant, 1:92-93 defined, 1:107, 4:152 gene expression patterns, 1:227 gene mutations in, 1:94-97 immune system response to, 2:79 telomerase production, 4:106 unregulated cell growth, 3:153 Wilms, 2:132, 2:185

See also Cancer; Carcinomas; Oncogenes Turner, William, 4:84 Turner's syndrome cause and symptoms, 1:121,

3:111, 4:80, 4:174 hormone therapy, 1:79 karyotype, 1:222 progeroid aspects, 1:2 Turpin, M. Raymond, 1:119 Twin registries Australian, 4:84

Elderly African-Americans, 4:159 privacy concerns, 4:160 twins as volunteers, 4:159 World War II Veterans, 4:159, 4:160 Twin studies addiction, 4:162 ADHD, 1:40

4:96-97, 4:162 Alzheimer's disease, 1:16 behavior, 1:47-48, 1:47, 1:51,

4:157-158, 4:162 benefits, 4:160 bipolor disorder, 3:215 cardiovascular disease, 1:101, 4:162

concordance, disease, 1:214, 2:168 concordance rates, 2:58, 4:158, 4:158

intelligence, 2:207-208,

2:209-210 Parkinson's disease, 4:159,

4:160-161 psychiatric disorders, 3:213, 4:162

schizophrenia, 3:214-215, 4:162 sexual orientation, 4:83-84 standards, 4:160 Tourette's syndrome, 3:215 See also Adoption studies Twins, 4:155-162

conjoined (Siamese), 4:156 developmental mechanisms,

2:35-36 epistatic interactions, 2:9 identical vs. fraternal, 4:156-157 mitochondrial inheritance, 4:157 Twins, fraternal defined, 1:16

developmental mechanisms,

4:155 statistics, 4:155 Twins, identical and cloning, 1:158, 1:160, 1:161, 1:165

defined, 1:16

developmental mechanisms,

4:155-156, 4:156 MHC compatibility, 4:140 mosaicism, 3:79 similarities and differences,

4:157-158 statistics, 4:156 Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE), 2:48-49, 2:48, 3:207-208 Ty elements, in retroviruses, 4:145 Type A syndrome, 1:211 Type I and II errors, in statistical analyses, 4:97 Typological (essentialist) view of evolution, 4:92 Tyrosine (Tyr)

breakdown, alkaptonuria, 3:43 genetic code, 2:85, 4:137 kinases, 4:87-89 phosphorylation, 3:178 RTK pathway, 4:87-88, 4:89, 4:90

Tyrosine kinase, 3:129 Tyrosinemia, symptoms and treatment, 3:40

Ubiquitin, 3:179

Ubiquitination, of proteins, 3:179, 3:180

Uid A (B-glucoronidase gus A)

enzymes, 3:18 Ulcers, and blood group, 1:84 Ultrasound scans, 3:182, 3:183,

3:185, 4:21, 4:24 Uniparental disomy, impact of, 2:185

Uniparental inheritance, defined, 2:197

Unmeasured (top-down) genotype strategy, 4:3 Uracil evolution of, 2:22-24 origin of term, 1:249 in RNA alphabet, 4:46-47, 4:106 structure, 3:115, 3:116, 3:119,

4:48, 4:49 U-G base pairs, premutagenic,

1:241-242 See also Base pairs Urea, formation disorders, 3:41, 3:45

Ureters, cancer, 1:169 Uric acid, and gout, 3:44 U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)

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