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Clinical trials (continued)

genomics industry role, 2:124 informed consent, 1:69, 2:81-82 Clomiphene citrate, 4:19 Cloning, defined, 1:152, 1:158 Cloning, ethical issues, 1:158-161 bioethical concerns, 1:159, 1:160 cloning bans and moratoriums,

1:71, 1:158-160, 2:3 context, 1:158 eugenics movement, 2:21 extinct animal species, 4:25 human cloning, 1:69, 1:158-160,

1:161, 2:3, 2:6 misconceptions, 1:160 Cloning genes, 1:152-158 CFTR gene, 2:60 vs. cloning organisms, 1:152, 1:161

DNA library tools, 1:222-224 DNA purification tools,

3:220-221 E. coli as tool, 2:10 electrophoresis tools, 2:50 expression cloning, 1:157, 3:152 genomic vs. cDNA clones,

1:153-154 Human Genome Project role,

2:171-172 as identification tool, 1:154-155 medical and industrial importance, 1:153-154 as oncogene study tools, 3:127 PCR as tool, 3:158 plasmid vectors, 3:152 positional cloning, 1:155-157, 1:202 purposes, 1:152

reverse transcriptase and, 1:153,

1:154, 4:40, 4:128 techniques, 1:152-153, 4:128 transposons as tools, 4:148 triplet repeats, 4:152 Werner's syndrome gene, 1:3 Cloning organisms, 1:161-165 amphibians, 1:158, 1:161-163 asexual reproduction, 1:161 vs. cloning genes, 1:152, 1:161 embryonic stem cell research, 2:3-6

endangered species, 1:158, 1:161,

1:164 history, 1:158, 1:161 livestock, 1:160, 1:162, 1:163-164 mice, 1:160, 4:61 pets, 1:158-159, 1:159 pigs, for organ transplants, 4:143

plants, 1:161, 3:166 reproductive cloning, 1:159-160 technical problems, 1:160,

1:164-165, 2:3 therapeutic cloning, 1:159-160, 1:161, 1:163-164 Cloning vectors, 1:70-71, 1:152-153, 2:4, 4:128 Clostridium characteristics, 2:12, 2:13 endospores, 2:12, 2:14 Clotting factors. See Blood clotting factors

Club foot, 1:75, 1:77, 1:80 Clustering analysis, 1:227 CML (chronic myelogenous leukemia), 3:127, 3:129, 4:154 C-myc gene, mutations, 3:96, 4:146 CNS disease, causal organism, 4:165 Coagulation factor IX, 1:163-164 Cob genes, 2:194 Cocci bacterial form, 2:13, 2:14 Cockayne's syndrome, progeroid aspects, 1:2 CODIS (Combined DNA Indexing

System), 1:235, 1:236, 1:237 Codominance

AB blood types, 3:36 defined, 2:200, 3:36 Codons anticodons, 2:84, 4:50, 4:137-138 defined, 2:84, 2:157, 3:96, 3:200,

3:209, 4:4 genetic code, table, 2:85, 4:137 possible combinations, 2:84, 4:135 sequence comparisons, mammals, 2:157

start (promoter), 2:52, 2:52, 2:84, 3:135, 4:4, 4:36, 4:109, 4:137, 4:138

stop (terminator), 1:13, 2:84, 2:85, 2:87, 3:96, 3:209, 4:110, 4:137, 4:138 synonyms, 2:84, 2:85 See also Genetic code Cofactors, metabolic role, 3:37,

3:39, 3:39, 3:43 Cohen, Stanley, 1:71, 1:152 Coiled-coil motif, 3:201 Col plasmids, 3:151 Colchicine, 3:165, 3:166 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory,

1:204, 4:173 Colectomy, defined, 1:168 Colitis, and colon cancer, 1:170 Collagen proteins cartilage matrix protein mutations and, 2:131-132

defined, 2:29 function, 2:201 Collagen proteins, function, 3:199 Collagen-structure disorders, 2:201 College professors, 1:165-166, 1:166, 2:1-2 Collins, Francis, 2:174 Colon cancer. See Cancer, colon Colon crypts defined, 1:103 replication, 1:103 Colonization bottlenecks. See

Founder effect Colonoscopies, 1:170 Colony-stimulating factors, cost and access concerns, 1:69 Color vision and color blindness. See

Vision, color Colorado Adoption Study (CAP), 2:210

Combinatorial chemistry, 1:173-177 approach, 1:173-174 drug development role,

2:124-125 drug targets, 1:175 genetics applications, 1:174 high-throughput screening tools,

1:175, 1:176, 2:149-150 SELEX, 1:176-177 Combinatorial control of development, 1:207 Combinatorial gene regulation, 2:65, 2:66

Combined DNA Indexing System (CODIS), 1:235, 1:236, 1:237 Common cold, causal organism, 4:165

COMP (cartilage oligomeric matrix protein), 2:131-132 Competence factors, 4:121 Complementary antisense nucleotides as, 1:29, 2:106

base pairs as, 1:198, 1:217, 1:225, 1:230, 2:24, 2:50, 2:186, 3:94, 3:118-119, 3:155, 4:107 defined, 1:29, 2:186, 3:118, 4:53 molecular probes, 1:88-89 Complementary DNA. See DNA, complementary (cDNA) Complex (polygenic) traits, 1:177-181

defined, 1:178, 2:206 disease role, 1:178-179 distinguished from simple traits,

1:177, 2:60-61 DNA microarray analysis, 1:228 emergenesis, 2:9 epistatic interactions, 2:9

eugenics and, 2:20 genomics tools to study, 2:122 inheritance patterns, 1:77-78,

1:213-214, 2:206 in Mendelian genetics, 3:102 modifier genes, 1:131 multifactorial, 1:178, 2:206 oligogenic, 1:178 in plant breeding, 2:106 See also Gene-environment interactions; Quantitative (continuous) traits Complex (polygenic) traits, specific addiction, 1:4-6, 1:77 aging, 1:6-8

Alzheimer's disease, 1:15-18,

1:178, 1:180-181, 1:213, 2:61 behavior, 1:48, 1:51 cancer, 1:213 cardiovascular disease,

1:101-103, 1:178, 1:213, 2:102 diabetes, 1:178, 1:210, 1:213, 2:102 eye color, 2:33

intelligence, 2:206, 2:211, 3:81

longevity, 3:81

psychiatric disorders, 1:213,

3:214-216 sexual orientation, 4:83-84 Computational biologists, 1:54-56,

1:181-182, 3:196 Computer technology automated sequencers, 1:44,

2:173-174 bioinformatics tools, 1:52-56, 1:53

computational biologists and, 1:181-182 genetic microchips, 2:119-120 homologous sequence analysis, 2:157

information systems managers,

2:192-194 Internet, 2:211-212 in linkage and recombination studies, 3:7 in mass spectrometry analysis, 3:18

as molecular anthropology tool, 3:67

pedigree drawing and recording, 3:140

protein folding predictions, 2:177 as proteomics tool, 3:208-209 RNA structure analysis, 4:48 statistical geneticists and, 4:94

COMT (Catechol-O-Methyltrans-

ferase) gene, 1:41 Concatamers, function, 4:118 Concentration gradients, role in development, 1:206 Cones, role in color vision,

1:170-171 Confidentiality. See Privacy Conformation defined, 3:201

of proteins, 3:200-202, 3:204 Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, newborn screening, 3:176, 3:177 Congenital generalized lipodys-trophic diabetes (CGL), 1:211, 2:203

Conifers, inheritance of mitochon-

drial and chloroplast genes, 2:197 Conjugation, 1:182-185 and antibiotic resistance,

1:26-28, 1:140, 1:185 defined, 1:27, 2:15, 4:123 DNase and, 4:123 E. colt, 1:141-142, 1:183, 1183, 1:185

and escaped transgenes, 1:68 eubacteria, 1:141-142 plasmid role, 1:140-142,

1:182-185, 1:184, 2:117, 3:151 sex pilus, 1:183, 1:183, 1:184, 2:15, 3:151 Connective tissues, sarcomas, 1:93 Connexin 26 gene, 1:76 Consanguinity. See Inbreeding Conservation biology, genetic approaches, 1:186-190 applications, 1:186-187,

1:190-191 cloning extinct species, 4:25 Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium,

2:135-136 illegal trading concerns, 1:186,

1:189-190 threatened population categories, 1:186

tools, 1:187-188, 1:190-191 units of conservation, 1:189, 1:190

See also Genetic drift; Natural selection; Population bottlenecks; Speciation Conservation geneticists, 1:190-192 Contigs, gene discovery role, 2:60 Continuous traits. See Quantitative traits

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, 1:190 Cook, Captain James, 1:63

Cooley's anemia (thalassemia major),

2:140 Cooper, Geoff, 3:127 Corn. See Maize

Corn borers, Bacillus thuringiensis and, 1:58, 1:64 Coronary artery disease early-onset, 1:101-103, 1:102 gene therapy, 2:74 See also Cardiovascular disease Correns, Carl, 3:102, 3:103 Corynebacterium, to synthesize vitamin C, 1:63 Cosmetic testing, Ames test, 1:20-21 Cotton, genetically engineered, 1:9,

2:107, 2:108, 4:134 Cows. See Livestock CpG dinucleotides, methylation of,

3:46-49, 3:47 CpG islands, 3:47, 3:48 Cre recombinase enzyme, 2:73 Creatine kinase, isoforms, 2:53 CREB (cyclic AMP response element binding protein), signal transduction role, 4:88, 4:89 Creighton, Harriet, 3:10, 3:21 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD),

3:188, 3:189-190 Cri du Chat syndrome, 1:123 Crick, Francis, 1:192-194

DNA structure research, 1:62, 1:193, 1:251, 2:50, 2:120, 2:171, 3:105, 4:172 education and training, 1:192 embryology and neurobiology studies, 1:193-194 on flow of genetic information, 4:39

on genetic coding, 1:252 wobble hypothesis, 2:85, 4:4 Criminal investigations. See Foren-sics

Cristae, in mitochondrial membranes, 3:55, 3:56 Critically Endangered population status, 1:186 Crocodiles, illegal trade concerns, 1:189

Crohn's disease, and colon cancer, 1:170

Crossing over (recombination), 1:194-197

chiasmata role, 1:194, 1:195, 3:26 ClB chromosome to prevent,

DNA comparison studies, 3:65

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