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Predisposition (susceptibility) to disease. See Genetic predisposition Prednisone, for muscular dystrophies, 3:87 Pregnancy age, and chromosomal abnormalities, 1:258, 2:97 and breast cancer risk, 1:89-90 ectopic and heterotopic, 4:22 fertilization role, 2:33-36 forced sterilization, 2:16-20,

2:90, 4:69 gestational diabetes, 1:209, 1:212 miscarriage, and prenatal diagnoses, 3:182, 3:184 retinoic acid and, 1:206 spontaneous abortions, 3:165, 4:22

surrogacy, 1:162, 1:163-164,

in utero gene therapy, 2:81, 2:82 See also In vitro fertilization; Infertility; Prenatal diagnosis; Reproductive technology Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)

ethical issues, 3:186-187, 4:29-30 uses, 2:98, 3:184, 3:185-186 Premutations, fragile X syndrome and, 2:40-42 Prenatal diagnosis, 3:182-187 alpha fetoprotein test, 3:185 amniocentesis, 1:258, 2:97, 3:183, 3:184

chorionic villus sampling, 1:258,

2:97, 3:184 chromosomal disorders, 1:79, 2:97 chromosome painting, 3:183 clinical geneticist role, 1:149-151 cytogenetics analysis, 1:119,

3:182-185 ethical issues, 2:81, 2:82-83,

2:103, 2:177, 3:186-187 fetal cell sorting, 3:184-185 genetic counseling, 2:97, 3:185, 3:186

maternal serum marker screening, 3:185 percutaneous umbilical blood sampling, 2:97-98 preimplantation genetic diagnosis, 3:182, 3:184, 3:185-186, 4:29-30

in situ hybridization tools, 3:182 specialists, 1:74 ultrasound scans, 3:182, 3:183, 3:185

Prenatal diagnosis, specific diseases achondroplasia, 1:76 AIS, 1:21, 1:25

Alzheimer's disease, 1:18, 3:186 cystic fibrosis, 1:203, 3:186 Down syndrome, 1:257-258,

3:185 dwarfism, 3:186 Fanconi anemia, 3:186, 4:30 hemophilia, 3:186 metabolic diseases, 3:183-184, 3:186

muscular dystrophies, 3:85, 3:86,

3:184, 3:186 neural tube defects, 3:184, 3:185 phenylketonuria, 2:55-56, 2:119 Rh antibodies, 1:85 Tay-Sachs disease, 3:184, 4:98,

4:100, 4:102 X-linked disorders, 3:186, 3:187 Pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs), 4:18

Presenilin 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2) protein. See Amyloid precursor protein Prevalence, defined, 1:214 Primary transcript, of RNA, 4:56,

4:57-59, 4:58 Primates

Alu sequences, 4:145-146 chromosome number range, 2:113

DNA, compared to human, 3:63,

3:64-65, 4:11 genetic diversity, 3:167-168, 3168

LI elements, 4:145-146 as organ donors, 4:142 poliovirus in, 4:166 Primer nucleotides, 3:155

annealing, in cycle sequencing,

1:199 defined, 1:44 degenerate, 3:158-159 in PCRs, 3:155-157 in STR analysis, 1:236 Primordial soup, defined, 2:23 Printed microarrays, 1:226 PRINTS database, 3:209 Prion protein (PrP), conformation conversions, 3:188-189, 3:189, 3:190, 3:190 Prions, 3:187-190

bovine spongiform encephalopa-

thy, 2:106, 3:188, 3:189 Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 3:188,

3:189-190 fatal familial insomnia, 3:190

Gertsmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, 3:189-190 kuru, 3:189 origin of term, 3:188 protein conformation conversions, 3:188-189, 3:189, 3:190, 3:190 scrapie, 3:188, 3:189 structure, 3:188 transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, 3:188-190 Privacy, 3:190-193

Directive on Data Protection, 3:192

DNA samples, justice system,

3:192-193 of gamete donors, 4:28 genetic testing and, 1:68, 3:190 Health Insurance Portability and

Accountability Act, 2:94 Human Genome Project concerns, 2:177 of medical records, 3:191-192 of pedigrees, 3:142 pharmacogenomics and, 3:146 of transgenic organisms, 4:130 of twin registries, 4:160 See also Genetic discrimination Probability, 3:193-196

Chi-square test, 3:194-195 complex traits, 1:177-179 and DNA profiling, 1:236, 1:238 genetic determinism, 2:102 genomic screening tools, 2:170 inbreeding coefficients, 2:190 in linkage analyses, 3:6-8 in Mendelian genetics,

1:146-149, 3:31, 3:34-35 p values, 3:194-196, 4:97 Punnett squares, 1:148, 3:33,

3:35, 3:193-194 relative risk ratios, 1:214, 2:56 See also Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium Probands defined, 3:140 symbol for, 3:139 Probes (molecular) defined, 1:88

See also In situ hybridization Procarcinogens, defined, 1:99 Processed pseudogenes (retro-

pseudogenes), 3:211-212 Procreation defined, 2:17 eugenics and, 2:17-20

100 Pregnancy Tips

100 Pregnancy Tips

Prior to planning pregnancy, you should learn more about the things involved in getting pregnant. It involves carrying a baby inside you for nine months, caring for a child for a number of years, and many more. Consider these things, so that you can properly assess if you are ready for pregnancy. Get all these very important tips about pregnancy that you need to know.

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