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Biotechnology, ethical issues (continued)

See also Transgenic organisms, ethical issues Bioterrorism and bioweapons, examples, 1:69-70 Biotin, as in situ hybridization tool, 2:188

BiP (binding protein), 1:117 Biparental inheritance, defined, 2:197

Bipolor disorder, 3:213-215 ADHD and, 1:40 defined, 1:40 Birds, sex determination, 4:81 Birth control forced sterilization, 2:16-20,

2:90, 4:69 terminating pregnancy, 2:103, 2:177

Birth defects, 1:74-82

and assisted reproduction, 4:29 autosomal dominant disorders, 1:75-76

chromosomal aberrations, 1:79, 1:119-125

cytogenetics analysis, 1:119,

1:257-258 eugenics to prevent, 2:16-21 gene expression failure, 2:67 gene-environment interactions, 1:77

inbreeding and, 2:189-191 leading categories, table, 1:75 and maternal condition, 1:82 multifactorial and polygenic,

1:77-78 physical and functional, 1:74,

1:76-77 single-gene mutations, 1:75 statistics, 1:74, 1:81 teratogen exposure, 1:79-81 in utero gene therapy, 2:81 See also Genetic counseling; Prenatal diagnosis; specific diseases and defects Bisacrylamide gels, 2:47 Bisexuality. See Sexual orientation Bishop, Michael, 4:38 Bivalents, in crossing over, 1:194,

1:195, 3:26 Blackburn, Elizabeth, 1:135, 4:104 Bladder, cancer, 1:93, 1:169 Blakeslee, F. A., 3:165 BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool), 2:156, 2:157, 2:212, 3:196 Blastocysts, 1:163, 4:20 defined, 2:3, 4:23

stem cell research, 2:3, 2:6, 4:126 in vitro fertilization, 4:23 Blattner, Fredrick, 1:142 Blending theory, 3:30, 3:34, 3:102 Blindness and aging, 1:7 color, 1:171-172 and diabetes, 1:209, 1:212 hereditary, 3:174 and smoking, 1:179 Tristan da Cunha islanders, 3:174

See also Retinoblastomas BLOCKS database, 3:209 Blood. See Globin proteins; Hemoglobin Blood cells shape, 1:108-109 white, immune diseases of, 2:76 Blood clotting factors coagulation factor IX, 1:163-164 FIX, and hemophilia, 2:142-143 genetically engineered, 1:63,

post-translational control, 3:181 replacement therapy, 2:78, 2:145 from transgenic animals, 4:127 VIII (FVIII), and hemophilia, 2:142-143, 2:145 Blood disorders

"-emia" suffix, 3:41 See also Hemoglobinopathies; Hemophilia; Leukemia Blood donors, blood group characteristics, 1:83 Blood pressure, as quantitative trait, 4:1, 4:3

Blood samples, privacy of, 3:191 Blood sugar glucocorticoids to regulate, 2:160 See also Diabetes; Insulin Blood transfusions to treat hemophilia, 2:145 to treat thalassemia, 2:140 Blood type, 1:82-86

AB, characteristics, 1:83, 1:84,

1:84, 1:233 antibodies and, 1:83 antigens and, 1:82-83

Bombay phenotype, 2:8, 2:9 codominance, 3:36 ethnic differences, 3:172

as law enforcement tool,

1:233-234, 1:236 multiple alleles, 1:83-84, 3:82 O, characteristics, 1:83, 1:84,

1:84, 1:233-234 secretors and nonsecretors, 1:83-84

See also ABO blood group system Bloom's syndrome

DNA repair role, 3:100 PML body mutations, 3:124 progeroid aspects, 1:2 Blotting, 1:86-89

DNA purification tools,

3:220-221 examples, 1:87-89 Northern (RNA), 1:86, 1:88-89,

1:152 procedure, 1:86-87 Southern (DNA), 1:86, 1:88,

1:88, 1:152, 2:5, 2:143, 3:221 Western (protein), 1:86, 1:89 Blue cone pigment (BCP) genes, 1:171

Blue-yellow color blindness,

BMD (Becker muscular dystrophy), 3:84

Bombay phenotype, 2:8, 2:9 Bombay, population of, 3:173 Bone density fertility hormones and, 4:22 osteoporosis, 1:1, 1:7, 2:90 Bone marrow, B-cell production, 2:178

Bone marrow transplants for Fanconi anemia, 3:186, 4:30,

4:141 for SCID, 4:75-77 for sickle-cell disease, 2:138 for thalassemias, 2:140-141 Bonenfant, Eugenie, 1:15 Borrelia sp., genome characteristics,

1:142, 2:116 Bottom-up (measured) genotype strategy, 4:3 Botulism, causal organism, 2:13 Boveri, Theodor, 3:102, 3:127 Bovine leukemia virus, 4:35 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy

(BSE), 2:106, 3:188, 3:189 Boyer, Herbert, 1:71, 1:72, 1:152 Brachydanio danio. See Zebrafish Brackish, defined, 3:149 Brain development anencephaly, 1:78

apoptosis and, 1:32, 1:33 DNA methylation role, 3:49 X chromosome role, 4:174 Brain disorders

ADHD, 1:39-42, 3:213, 3:215 mitochondrial diseases, 3:54 prion diseases, 3:188-190 See also Alzheimer's disease; Mental retardation; Psychiatric disorders Brave New World (A. Huxley), 4:26 BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes Alu sequences and, 4:146 genetic testing, 2:89-90, 2:100, 3:218

mutations, 1:91, 1:92, 1:95, 1:100, 4:153 Breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycle, 3:22

Breast disorders gynecomastia, 1:79 See also Cancer, breast Breasts, development of, 4:79 Brenner, Sydney, 1:193, 1:205, 4:62 Bridges, Calvin Blackman,

1:130-131, 2:42-43, 3:73, 3:75, 3:76, 3:80 5-bromo-deoxyuridine (5BU), as mutagen, 3:87, 3:88 Brown, Louise Joy, 1:69, 4:27 Brown, Robert, 3:119 BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), 2:106, 3:188, 3:189

BT. See Bacillus thuringiensis Bubble children. See Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) Buchnera sp.

genome characteristics, 1:142 as intracellular symbionts, 2:198 Buffers, defined, 3:156, 3:221, 4:71, 4:104

Burkholderia cepacia, 4:129 Bush, George W., on stem cell research, 4:30 Butterflies and moths impact of Bacillus thuringiensis on, 1:58

impact of transgenic corn on, 4:130

Bystander effect, 2:79

C value paradox, 2:114 C values, 2:113, 2:114 C-Abl proto-oncogene, 3:129 Cadmium, hyperaccumulators of, 1:60

Caenorhabditis elegans. See Roundworms

Cafe-au-lait spots, 3:153, 3:154 CAGn repeats (polyglutamine disorders), 4:150, 4:151-152 Cairns, John, 1:139 CAIS (complete androgen insensitiv-

ity syndrome), 1:25 Cajal bodies, 3:120 Calcium signal transduction role, 4:90 transformation role, 4:121 Calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinases (CAM/kinases), 4:90 Calgene company, genetic engineering, 1:29, 1:73 Calico (tortoiseshell) cats, mosaicism, 3:77, 3:78 Calpain 10 protease gene, 1:210 Cambrian explosion, gene duplication role, 2:29 CAMP (adenosine monophosphate, cyclic), 1:5-6, 1:110, 4:89 Campylobacter jejuni, genome characteristics, 1:142 Cancer, 1:92-97

aberrant phosphorylation and, 3:178

aging and, 1:7, 1:8, 1:92 angiogenesis, 1:94 apoptosis and, 1:29, 1:32-33,

1:96, 1:155, 1:168, 3:130, 4:154 blood group and, 1:84 cell cycle deregulation and,

1:107-108, 1:167-169 cell senescence and, 1:96 cell type classification, 1:94 as complex trait, 1:213 damaged DNA role, 1:239, 1:242 DNA methylation role, 3:49 gene expression failure, 2:67 gene-environment interactions,

1:90, 1:92, 1:179-180 genetic predisposition to, 1:90, 1:91-92, 1:97-98, 1:99, 3:127 immortal cells, 4:104-106 immune system response to tumors, 2:79 inheritance patterns, 1:97 lifestyle and, 1:6 malignant and benign tumors,

1:92-93 metastasis, 1:94 mutations and, 3:98, 4:157 organ of origin, 1:94 p53 gene mutations and, 2:5, 4:169

signal transduction role, 1:94-95,

3:128, 3:129-130, 4:89-90 STR instability and, 4:11 viral role, 1:92, 1:100, 3:127,

3:130, 4:34, 4:169-170 and Werner's syndrome, 1:3 See also Carcinogens; Oncogenes; Tumor suppressor genes; Tumors Cancer, breast, 1:89-92

alcohol consumption and, 1:91 Alu sequences and, 4:146 atypical cells, 1:91 BRCA genes, 3:218, 4:153 cell cycle regulation and, 1:107 clinical features, 2:202 diet and, 1:91

environmental factors, 1:90 genetic counseling for, 2:89-90 genetic factors, 1:90, 1:91-92, 1:100

genetic testing for, 2:100, 2:102, 2:168

geographic differences, 1:90 hormone replacement therapy and, 1:90 lifestyle and, 1:90, 1:91, 2:90 in males, 1:91 mammograms, 1:90, 3:175 menstrual cycle and, 1:90 multiplicative gene effects, 1:180

pharmacogenomics to predict, 3:146

pregnancies and, 1:89-90 racial and ethnic differences,

1:90, 1:91 radiation and, 1:91 statistics, 1:89, 1:93 Cancer, colon, 1:166-170

adenoma-carcinoma sequence, 1:167

4:153 colectomies, 1:168 diet and, 1:170 dividing cancer cell, 1:169 DNA microarray tools, 1:229 familial adenomatous polyposis,

1:167-169 genetic predisposition to, 1:99,

1:167-170 hereditary non polyposis cancer,

1:167, 1:169 inflammatory bowel disease and, 1:170

polyps, 1:167-169, 1:167 prevention, 1:170

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