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Automated sequencers (continued) computer monitoring, 1:53 with fluorescent dyes, 4:72-73, 4:73

history, 1:43, 1:72, 1:73-74 Human Genome Project role,

2:172, 2:173-174, 2176 Maxam-Gilbert method, 4:70-71, 4:71

procedures, 1:43, 1:198 technology refinements, 1:44-45 Autopolyploid plants, 3:165-166 Autoradiography applications, 1:136-137, 2:188,

4:71, 4:72 defined, 1:139 Autosomal dominant disorders. See Dominant disorders, autosomal Autosomal recessive disorders. See Recessive disorders, autosomal Autosomes aberrations, detecting, 3:183 defined, 1:3, 2:43, 3:76, 4:75 fruit fly, 2:43

human, number, 1:79, 1:119, 1:196, 2:33, 2:113, 2:174, 2:199, 3:64, 3:76, 3:106, 3:108-109, 3:111, 3:182 imprinted genes, 2:183 primate, number, 3:64 pseudoautosomal region, 1:196-197 Avery, Oswald, 1:250, 2:50, 3:103,

3:105, 4:124 Avian leukosis virus, 4:35 Avocado sunblotch viroid, 4:163 Axis development in fTuit flies, 1:206-207, 1:207,

2:45, 2:68 homeotic genes and, 2:68 in mammals, 1:208, 2:68 AZFa, b, and c genes, 4:177 Azidothymidine (AZT), 2:155-156,

4:41, 4:41 Azoospermia, 4:21

B cells, 2:178-179, 2:180-181 B lymphocytes, and antibody genes, 1:174

Bacilli bacterial form, 2:13 Bacillus anthracis, antibiotics to combat, 2:15

Bacillus halodurans, genome characteristics, 1:142 Bacillus subtilis, genome characteristics, 1:142, 2:172

Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), 1:58, 1:64,

3:149, 4:134 Back-crosses, 1:149 Back-mutations, 3:65, 3:100 BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes), 1:144-146, 1:222-224 Bacteria. See Eubacteria Bacteriophages defined, 1:204, 3:105 Delbruck's research, 1:204 as gene therapy tool, 1:201 genome characteristics, 2:117 in Hershey-Chase experiment,

3:104, 3:105, 4:120 Lambda, 4:119 MuM, 4:144 operons, 3:131 P22, 4:118 PhiX174, 3:135, 4:64 ribozymes, 4:44-45 sequencing, 2:172 T4, 4:165-166

4:117-120 Watson's research, 4:172 Bailey, J. Michael, 4:83-84 Balanced polymorphism (balancing selection), 1:45-46 Baltimore, David, 4:35, 4:40 Bananas, genetically engineered, 2:107

Bands (banding patterns). See Chromosomal banding Barbacid, Mariano, 3:127 Barr bodies. See Mosaicism Bartel, David, 2:25 Basal cells cancerous tumors, 1:94 skin, replication, 1:103 Basal, defined, 2:68 Basal transcription factors,

4:112-113, 4:113 Base analogs, mutagenic, 3:87, 3:88, 3:90-91

Base excision repair (BER) pathway,

1:240, 1:242-244, 1:243 Base pairs alkylation damage, 1:242 C values, 2:113, 2:114 as complementary, 1:198, 1:217, 1:225-226, 1:230, 2:24, 2:50, 2:186, 3:94, 3:118-119, 3:155, 4:56, 4:107 deamination damage, 1:240-242 defined, 1:76, 2:49, 3:13, 4:7 depurination and depyrimidina-

tion, 1:240 discovery of, 1:249

and DNA structure, 1:215-220, 2:50, 2:51, 3:115, 3:116, 3:117 evolutionary origin, 2:22-25 Hoogsteen, 1:217, 1:218 hydrophobic interactions, 1:217 oxidative damage, 1:242 proportions, Chargaff s studies,

1:250-251, 4:172 in RNA, 4:47, 4:49 stacking, 1:217 structure, 3:115, 3:116 U-G, premutagenic, 1:241-242 van der Waal's forces, 1:217 See also Codons; Genetic code; Hydrogen bonds; Nucleotides Base substitution mutations, 3:95-96 Base-altering mutagens, 3:88 Basic, defined, 3:200 Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), 2:156, 2:157, 2:212, 3:196

B-cell lymphomas, 2:155 BCL-2 gene function, 1:32 overactive, 1:29 BCP (blue cone pigment) gene, 1:171

Bcr proto-oncogene, 3:129 Beadle, George, 3:76, 3:103, 3:103 Becker, Peter, 3:84 Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome,

animal model studies, 1:48-49,

3:61 defined, 1:46

eugenics concepts, 2:18 extranuclear genes to study, 2:198

genetic components, 1:48, 2:128 genetics, history, 1:46-47 selection concepts, 4:67 sexual orientation, 2:20, 4:83-85 as species isolation mechanism, 4:93

twin and adoption studies,

1:47-48, 4:157-159, 4:162 See also Addiction; Alcoholism; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Intelligence; Psychiatric disorders; Smoking (tobacco) Behavior Genetics Association, 1:47 Bell, Julia, 2:39

Benzene, side group substitutions,

1:173-174, 1:174 Benzer, Seymour, 1:193, 3:105 Benzo[«]pyrene, as mutagen,

1:244-245, 1:245, 3:89 BER (base excision repair) pathway,

1:240, 1:242-244, 1:243 Berg, Paul, 1:71, 1:72, 1:152,

2:171-172 Bermuda Principles, 2:174, 2:176 Best disease, clinical features, 2:202 Beta carotene, 2:106-107, 2:108,

3:149 Beta cells antibodies against, 1:209 defects, genetic disorders, 1:210-212 function, 1:209 Beta globin genes normal, 2:136

sickle-cell disease, 2:136-138, 2:148

Beta particles, defined, 3:89 Beta-amyloid protein, and

Alzheimer's disease, 1:157 Beta-carotene, in transgenic rice,

2:106-107, 2:108 Beta-hexosaminidase A enzymes, 3:45

Beta-lactamases, antibiotic resistance, 1:28 Beta-lactoglobulin gene, 4:127 Beta-retrovirus, characteristics, 4:35 BEY1 and BEY2 genes, for eye color, 2:33 BFB (breakage-fusion-bridge) cycle,

3:21, 3:22 B-glucoronidase gus A (uid A)

enzymes, 3:18 Bicoid proteins, 1:206-207, 1:207 Bile ducts, cancer, 1:169 Binary fission, procedure, 2:13 Binding protein (BiP), 1:117 Binet, Alfred, 2:208 Bioactivation, as mutagen source, 3:89

Biodiversity. See Genetic diversity Bioethics. See Ethical issues Biohazards, recombinant bacteria as, 3:152

Bioinformatics, 1:52-56 data acquisition, 1:54 data analysis, 1:55-56 data integration, 1:56 databases and analysis programs,

1:52-55 defined, 1:52, 2:29, 3:18 as DNA microarray tool, 1:227

as DNA sequencing tool, 2:29 as gene cloning tool, 1:157 genomics industry role, 2:124 high-throughput screening tools,

2:149-150 integrated data analysis, 1:56 Internet tools, 2:212 in mass spectrometry analyses, 3:18

pharmaceutical scientist role, 3:143

Biolistic, defined, 1:255 Biolistic particle inoculation, 1:255 Biological gardens, conservation genetics applications, 1:187 Biological-species concept, 4:91 Biologists cellular, 3:70 computational, 1:54-56,

1:181-182, 3:196 evolutionary, 3:70 microbiologists, 3:50-51 molecular, 3:70-72, 3:71 Biology. See Conservation biology, genetic approaches Biopesticides, 1:57-59

genetically modified organisms,

1:57, 4:134 natural chemical defenses, 1:57 natural enemies, 1:57 See also Disease-resistant crops; Herbicide-resistant crops; Insect-resistant crops Biopharmaceuticals, development of,

2:125, 4:129 Biopsies, defined, 1:91 Biopterin, 3:43

Bioreactors, transgenic animals as, 4:127

Bioremediation, 1:59-62 by natural microbes, 1:59 phytoremediation, 1:60-61 by transgenic organisms, 1:61-62, 1:61, 4:129 Biotechnology, agricultural, 1:9-11 advantages, 1:9-11 antisense nucleotide tools, 1:29, 2:106

Arabidopsis research, 1:35-36 benefits, 2:106-108 biopesticide producers, 1:57 genomics industry role, 2:121, 2:125

patent attorneys, 1:42-43 plant genetic engineer role,

3:149-150 polymorphisms as tools, 3:162

2:107, 2:108-109 techniques, 1:9, 1:35, 2:107-108 transgenic animals, 1:11, 1:73, 2:106, 2:125, 4:127

See also Disease-resistant crops; Genetically modified foods; Herbicide-resistant crops; Insect-resistant crops; Trans-genic plants Biotechnology and genetic engineering, 1:62-65

amino acid production, 1:63 antibiotic production, 1:63 artificial transformation tools,

4:121, 4:123 bioinformatics tools, 1:53-56 biotechnology, defined, 1:9, 1:70, 3:216

clinical testing tools, 1:64 cloning organisms, 1:161-165 genetic engineering vs. biotechnology, 1:70 genomics industry role,

2:123-125 laundry detergent proteases,

1:63-64, 1:73 recombinant DNA tools, 4:5-6 restriction enzyme tools,

1:70-71, 2:107, 3:114, 4:33-34 transgenic bioremediation, 1:61-62, 1:62-63, 4:129 vitamin C production, 1:63 See also Transgenic animals; Transgenic microorganisms Biotechnology and genetic engineering, history, 1:70-74 DNA profiling, 1:73 fermentation, 1:66, 1:70, 1:71 gene patenting and biotechnology companies, 1:72-73 Human Genome Project, 1:73-74 Biotechnology entrepreneurs,

1:65-66, 1:72 Biotechnology, ethical issues, 1:66-70

agriculture, 1:11, 1:66-68 Asilomar Conference, 1:71 bioterrorism, 1:69-70 clinical trials, 1:69 cloning organisms, 1:158-161 drug treatment cost and access, 1:69

environmental concerns, 1:58,

1:69, 3:152 eugenics concerns, 2:21 genetic discrimination, 1:68 rules and regulations, 1:64

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Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.

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