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Automated sequencers (continued) computer monitoring, 1:53 with fluorescent dyes, 4:72-73, 4:73

history, 1:43, 1:72, 1:73-74 Human Genome Project role,

2:172, 2:173-174, 2176 Maxam-Gilbert method, 4:70-71, 4:71

procedures, 1:43, 1:198 technology refinements, 1:44-45 Autopolyploid plants, 3:165-166 Autoradiography applications, 1:136-137, 2:188,

4:71, 4:72 defined, 1:139 Autosomal dominant disorders. See Dominant disorders, autosomal Autosomal recessive disorders. See Recessive disorders, autosomal Autosomes aberrations, detecting, 3:183 defined, 1:3, 2:43, 3:76, 4:75 fruit fly, 2:43

human, number, 1:79, 1:119, 1:196, 2:33, 2:113, 2:174, 2:199, 3:64, 3:76, 3:106, 3:108-109, 3:111, 3:182 imprinted genes, 2:183 primate, number, 3:64 pseudoautosomal region, 1:196-197 Avery, Oswald, 1:250, 2:50, 3:103,

3:105, 4:124 Avian leukosis virus, 4:35 Avocado sunblotch viroid, 4:163 Axis development in fTuit flies, 1:206-207, 1:207,

2:45, 2:68 homeotic genes and, 2:68 in mammals, 1:208, 2:68 AZFa, b, and c genes, 4:177 Azidothymidine (AZT), 2:155-156,

4:41, 4:41 Azoospermia, 4:21

B cells, 2:178-179, 2:180-181 B lymphocytes, and antibody genes, 1:174

Bacilli bacterial form, 2:13 Bacillus anthracis, antibiotics to combat, 2:15

Bacillus halodurans, genome characteristics, 1:142 Bacillus subtilis, genome characteristics, 1:142, 2:172

Bacillus thuringiensis (BT), 1:58, 1:64,

3:149, 4:134 Back-crosses, 1:149 Back-mutations, 3:65, 3:100 BACs (bacterial artificial chromosomes), 1:144-146, 1:222-224 Bacteria. See Eubacteria Bacteriophages defined, 1:204, 3:105 Delbruck's research, 1:204 as gene therapy tool, 1:201 genome characteristics, 2:117 in Hershey-Chase experiment,

3:104, 3:105, 4:120 Lambda, 4:119 MuM, 4:144 operons, 3:131 P22, 4:118 PhiX174, 3:135, 4:64 ribozymes, 4:44-45 sequencing, 2:172 T4, 4:165-166

4:117-120 Watson's research, 4:172 Bailey, J. Michael, 4:83-84 Balanced polymorphism (balancing selection), 1:45-46 Baltimore, David, 4:35, 4:40 Bananas, genetically engineered, 2:107

Bands (banding patterns). See Chromosomal banding Barbacid, Mariano, 3:127 Barr bodies. See Mosaicism Bartel, David, 2:25 Basal cells cancerous tumors, 1:94 skin, replication, 1:103 Basal, defined, 2:68 Basal transcription factors,

4:112-113, 4:113 Base analogs, mutagenic, 3:87, 3:88, 3:90-91

Base excision repair (BER) pathway,

1:240, 1:242-244, 1:243 Base pairs alkylation damage, 1:242 C values, 2:113, 2:114 as complementary, 1:198, 1:217, 1:225-226, 1:230, 2:24, 2:50, 2:186, 3:94, 3:118-119, 3:155, 4:56, 4:107 deamination damage, 1:240-242 defined, 1:76, 2:49, 3:13, 4:7 depurination and depyrimidina-

tion, 1:240 discovery of, 1:249

and DNA structure, 1:215-220, 2:50, 2:51, 3:115, 3:116, 3:117 evolutionary origin, 2:22-25 Hoogsteen, 1:217, 1:218 hydrophobic interactions, 1:217 oxidative damage, 1:242 proportions, Chargaff s studies,

1:250-251, 4:172 in RNA, 4:47, 4:49 stacking, 1:217 structure, 3:115, 3:116 U-G, premutagenic, 1:241-242 van der Waal's forces, 1:217 See also Codons; Genetic code; Hydrogen bonds; Nucleotides Base substitution mutations, 3:95-96 Base-altering mutagens, 3:88 Basic, defined, 3:200 Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST), 2:156, 2:157, 2:212, 3:196

B-cell lymphomas, 2:155 BCL-2 gene function, 1:32 overactive, 1:29 BCP (blue cone pigment) gene, 1:171

Bcr proto-oncogene, 3:129 Beadle, George, 3:76, 3:103, 3:103 Becker, Peter, 3:84 Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome,

animal model studies, 1:48-49,

3:61 defined, 1:46

eugenics concepts, 2:18 extranuclear genes to study, 2:198

genetic components, 1:48, 2:128 genetics, history, 1:46-47 selection concepts, 4:67 sexual orientation, 2:20, 4:83-85 as species isolation mechanism, 4:93

twin and adoption studies,

1:47-48, 4:157-159, 4:162 See also Addiction; Alcoholism; Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; Intelligence; Psychiatric disorders; Smoking (tobacco) Behavior Genetics Association, 1:47 Bell, Julia, 2:39

Benzene, side group substitutions,

1:173-174, 1:174 Benzer, Seymour, 1:193, 3:105 Benzo[«]pyrene, as mutagen,

1:244-245, 1:245, 3:89 BER (base excision repair) pathway,

1:240, 1:242-244, 1:243 Berg, Paul, 1:71, 1:72, 1:152,

2:171-172 Bermuda Principles, 2:174, 2:176 Best disease, clinical features, 2:202 Beta carotene, 2:106-107, 2:108,

3:149 Beta cells antibodies against, 1:209 defects, genetic disorders, 1:210-212 function, 1:209 Beta globin genes normal, 2:136

sickle-cell disease, 2:136-138, 2:148

Beta particles, defined, 3:89 Beta-amyloid protein, and

Alzheimer's disease, 1:157 Beta-carotene, in transgenic rice,

2:106-107, 2:108 Beta-hexosaminidase A enzymes, 3:45

Beta-lactamases, antibiotic resistance, 1:28 Beta-lactoglobulin gene, 4:127 Beta-retrovirus, characteristics, 4:35 BEY1 and BEY2 genes, for eye color, 2:33 BFB (breakage-fusion-bridge) cycle,

3:21, 3:22 B-glucoronidase gus A (uid A)

enzymes, 3:18 Bicoid proteins, 1:206-207, 1:207 Bile ducts, cancer, 1:169 Binary fission, procedure, 2:13 Binding protein (BiP), 1:117 Binet, Alfred, 2:208 Bioactivation, as mutagen source, 3:89

Biodiversity. See Genetic diversity Bioethics. See Ethical issues Biohazards, recombinant bacteria as, 3:152

Bioinformatics, 1:52-56 data acquisition, 1:54 data analysis, 1:55-56 data integration, 1:56 databases and analysis programs,

1:52-55 defined, 1:52, 2:29, 3:18 as DNA microarray tool, 1:227

as DNA sequencing tool, 2:29 as gene cloning tool, 1:157 genomics industry role, 2:124 high-throughput screening tools,

2:149-150 integrated data analysis, 1:56 Internet tools, 2:212 in mass spectrometry analyses, 3:18

pharmaceutical scientist role, 3:143

Biolistic, defined, 1:255 Biolistic particle inoculation, 1:255 Biological gardens, conservation genetics applications, 1:187 Biological-species concept, 4:91 Biologists cellular, 3:70 computational, 1:54-56,

1:181-182, 3:196 evolutionary, 3:70 microbiologists, 3:50-51 molecular, 3:70-72, 3:71 Biology. See Conservation biology, genetic approaches Biopesticides, 1:57-59

genetically modified organisms,

1:57, 4:134 natural chemical defenses, 1:57 natural enemies, 1:57 See also Disease-resistant crops; Herbicide-resistant crops; Insect-resistant crops Biopharmaceuticals, development of,

2:125, 4:129 Biopsies, defined, 1:91 Biopterin, 3:43

Bioreactors, transgenic animals as, 4:127

Bioremediation, 1:59-62 by natural microbes, 1:59 phytoremediation, 1:60-61 by transgenic organisms, 1:61-62, 1:61, 4:129 Biotechnology, agricultural, 1:9-11 advantages, 1:9-11 antisense nucleotide tools, 1:29, 2:106

Arabidopsis research, 1:35-36 benefits, 2:106-108 biopesticide producers, 1:57 genomics industry role, 2:121, 2:125

patent attorneys, 1:42-43 plant genetic engineer role,

3:149-150 polymorphisms as tools, 3:162

2:107, 2:108-109 techniques, 1:9, 1:35, 2:107-108 transgenic animals, 1:11, 1:73, 2:106, 2:125, 4:127

See also Disease-resistant crops; Genetically modified foods; Herbicide-resistant crops; Insect-resistant crops; Trans-genic plants Biotechnology and genetic engineering, 1:62-65

amino acid production, 1:63 antibiotic production, 1:63 artificial transformation tools,

4:121, 4:123 bioinformatics tools, 1:53-56 biotechnology, defined, 1:9, 1:70, 3:216

clinical testing tools, 1:64 cloning organisms, 1:161-165 genetic engineering vs. biotechnology, 1:70 genomics industry role,

2:123-125 laundry detergent proteases,

1:63-64, 1:73 recombinant DNA tools, 4:5-6 restriction enzyme tools,

1:70-71, 2:107, 3:114, 4:33-34 transgenic bioremediation, 1:61-62, 1:62-63, 4:129 vitamin C production, 1:63 See also Transgenic animals; Transgenic microorganisms Biotechnology and genetic engineering, history, 1:70-74 DNA profiling, 1:73 fermentation, 1:66, 1:70, 1:71 gene patenting and biotechnology companies, 1:72-73 Human Genome Project, 1:73-74 Biotechnology entrepreneurs,

1:65-66, 1:72 Biotechnology, ethical issues, 1:66-70

agriculture, 1:11, 1:66-68 Asilomar Conference, 1:71 bioterrorism, 1:69-70 clinical trials, 1:69 cloning organisms, 1:158-161 drug treatment cost and access, 1:69

environmental concerns, 1:58,

1:69, 3:152 eugenics concerns, 2:21 genetic discrimination, 1:68 rules and regulations, 1:64

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