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Evolution, of genes (continued) pseudogenes, 2:28, 2:29-30,

3:211-213 quantitative traits, 4:1 repeated sequences, 2:28, 2:30,

2:31, 2:115, 4:9, 4:10-11 restriction enzymes, 4:31 retroposition, 2:28 retrovirus-like elements as indicators, 4:41 ribosomal RNA as indicator, 1:36 ribozyme role, 4:46 sex chromosomes, 4:174,

4:177-179, 4:178 species designations, 1:188, 1:189 transcription factors, 4:112 viroids, 4:163 Evolution, of mitochondria endosymbiont ancestors, 1:112, 2:12, 2:194-196, 3:52, 3:55, 3:56-57 genome characteristics, 2:116 See also DNA, mitochondrial (mtDNA) Ex vivo, defined, 2:76 Ex vivo gene transfer, as gene therapy tool, 2:76 Excelesis, functional genomics role,

2:124 Exercise cancer and, 1:91

cardiovascular disease and, 1:101

diabetes and, 1:210

familial hypercholesterolemia and, 2:57 impact on gene expression, 1:225 longevity and, 1:6 sickle-cell disease and, 2:138 Exit (E) site, in translation, 4:138 Exogenous, defined, 4:121 Exon shuffling, gene evolution role,

in CFTR gene, 2:60 defined, 2:30

3:106, 3:181, 4:45, 4:58 triplet repeats, 4:149, 4:150 Exonuclease enzymes defined, 1:231

function, 3:112, 3:113-114, 3:113 proofreading, 1:231, 1:232,

3:113-114, 4:17, 4:18 structure preferences, 3:112-113 Exoribonuclease enzymes, 4:57-58 Exploratory data analysis, 4:95-96 Exportins, 3:126

Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis, 1:223, 1:224, 1:229 Expression analysis defined, 1:227

DNA microarray tools, 1:228, 4:40

Expression cloning, 1:157, 3:152 Expression libraries, 1:224 Expression vectors, 1:157 Exteins, 3:179, 3:181 Extinct in the Wild population status, 1:186 Extinct population status, 1:186 Extinct species cloning, 4:25 DNA analysis, 3:68-69 population bottlenecks, 3:167 Extinction vortex, 1:188 Extranuclear inheritance. See Inheritance, extranuclear Extremophiles. See Archaea Extremozymes, 1:38, 1:199, 3:157 Exxon Valdez oil spill, 1:59, 1:60 Eye color, 2:31-33 aging and, 2:33 change in response to disease, 2:33

genetic components, 2:32-33 impact of drugs, 2:33 iris structure, 2:32 Eye disorders birth defects, 1:75 color blindness, 2:203, 3:78 mitochondrial diseases, 3:54 spondylopiphseal dysplasias, 2:131 See also Blindness; Retinoblastomas

Eyes iris, 2:31-33

retinas, 1:170, 4:98, 4:100 See also Vision; Vision, color

Fabricated Man (P. Ramsey), 4:26 Fabry disease, symptoms and treatment, 3:41 Factor VIII, hemophilia and, 4:174 Factor-dependent terminators, 4:110 Fallopian tubes defined, 4:19 development, 1:22, 4:79 function, 2:35 Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), 1:167-169, 2:167-169, 4:153

Familial aggregation studies, 1:213-214, 2:58, 2:60

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC)

as autosomal dominant disorder, 2:201

clinical features, 2:202 gene-environment interactions, 2:57

Familial partial lipodystrophic diabetes (FPLD), 1:211 Family studies

CEPH, and gene mapping, 3:12, 3:13

disease concordance studies, 1:213-214, 2:168-169, 3:7-8, 3:177

epistatic interactions, 2:9 eugenics applications, 2:17, 2:20 genetic counseling role, 2:88-90 genetic testing, 2:59, 2:99-100,

2:101, 2:168-169 individual genetic variations, 2:192

informed consent, 2:168 The Kallikak Family, 2:18, 2:19 Mennonites, inbreeding,

2:190-191 in molecular anthropology, 3:65 pedigrees, 3:7, 3:36, 3:138-142,

3:141, 4:178 positional cloning studies,

2:59-60 sibling recurrence ratios, 2:58 of Thomas Jefferson, 3:65 See also Adoption studies; Twin studies

Family studies, specific diseases and traits addiction, 1:4-5 ADHD, 1:40

Alzheimer's disease, 1:16-18 behavior, 1:47-48 breast cancer, 1:91, 2:100, 2:102 cardiovascular disease, 1:101-103 colon cancer, 1:168-170 cystic fibrosis, 1:202-203 intelligence, 2:209-210 longevity, 1:6-7 psychiatric disorders, 3:213,

3:214, 3:214-215 sexual orientation, 4:83-84 FAP (familial adenomatous polypo-sis), 1:167-169, 2:167-169, 4:153 Farnsworth-Munsell color vision test, 1:172 Farnsworth's Panel D-15 color vision test, 1:172 FAS/FAE (fetal alcohol syndrome/effects), 1:75, 1:81 Fatal familial insomnia, 3:190

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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