Oooc oc

Transcription factors (continued) helix-turn-helix DNA-binding motif, 4:115, 4:116 hormone receptors as, 2:161 huntingtin's interference with, 4:152

and morphogen gradients, 1:206 mutations, and endocrine disorders, 2:129 as oncogenes, 3:128, 3:130 organism development role,

1:205, 1:207-208 point mutations and, 2:27 protein phosphorylation role,

1:106-107, 1:106 regulation of, 4:115-117 testosterone as, 1:110 triplet repeats, 4:149 zinc-finger DNA-binding motif, 4:114, 4:115 Transcription factors, specific acidic activation proteins, 2:64, 2:66 B, 4:112

basal, 4:112-113, 4:113 c-Fos, 3:130 c-Jun, 3:130 PIT1, 2:129 POU2F1, 2:129 PROP1, 2:129 TBP, 4:112

TFII-D, 2:63, 4:112-113, 4:113 Transcription, reverse discovery of DNA, 4:39-40 hepatitis B virus, 4:41 in human genome, 4:41 Transcription, specific organisms bacteriophages, 4:118-120 eubacteria, 2:15-16 eukaryotes, 2:53, 4:50 HIV, 2:153, 2:154, 2:155-156 mitochondria, 3:56 viruses, 4:166-169 Transcripts, RNA defined, 1:229 function, 4:107, 4:110 Transducers, generalized, 2:15 Transducing particles, 4:118 Transduction, by bacteriophages, 1:182, 2:15, 4:117-120 DNase and, 4:123 generalized, 4:117-118, 4:118 genome mapping, 4:119-120 prophages, 2:116, 4:39, 4:119 specialized, 4:118-119 Transduction cascades. See Signal transduction

Transduction, signal. See Signal transduction Transfer (ira) genes, of plasmids,

3:151, 3:151 Transfer RNA. See RNA, transfer

(tRNA) Transformation, 4:121-124 artificial, 4:121, 4:123 bacteria-mediated, 1:9, 1:35,

1:153, 2:15, 3:152 DNase and, 4:123 function, 1:182, 4:121 Griffith's experiment, 4:122,

4:123-124 marker systems, 3:15-18 natural, 4:121 Transfusions blood group characteristics, 1:83

and Rh antibodies, 1:84-86, 1:85 Transgenes defined, 1:68, 2:4, 3:17 in gene therapy, 2:77 in marker systems, 3:15-18 Transgenic animals, 4:124-127 agricultural biotechnology,

1:10-11, 1:73 developmental process studies,

1:204-205, 1:208 embryonic stem cells and, 2:4-6, 4:126

4:124-127 salmon, 4:130 selection of targeted cells,

4:125-126 targeted gene replacement, 4:125 uses, 2:106, 4:124, 4:126-127, 4:130

See also Gene targeting; Knock-in mutants; Knock-out mutants Transgenic microorganisms, 4:127-129

as bioremediators, 1:61-62, 4:129 research history, 1:71 transposons as tools, 4:148 uses, 1:62-63, 1:66-70, 4:129 yeasts, 1:62, 4:180-181 See also Cloning genes Transgenic organisms defined, 1:66, 4:129-130 patent issues, 3:136-138 Transgenic organisms, ethical issues, 4:129-132

damage caused by activists, 4:132 economic concerns, 4:131-132 environmental concerns, 1:66-68, 4:129, 4:130

food safety concerns, 1:11, 2:107,

2:108-109 privacy concerns, 1:66, 4:130 See also Biotechnology, ethical issues

Transgenic plants, 4:132-135 agricultural biotechnology,

1:9-11, 1:64 antigens in, 4:134 antisense nucleotide tools, 1:29, 2:106

Arabidopsis research, 1:35 biopesticides, 1:57-58 corn, 1:9, 1:58, 1:68, 2:108,

3:149, 4:130 direct DNA absorption, 4:133 disease-resistant crops, 2:106,

2:107, 4:134 distinguished from controlled breeding, 2:106 extended shelf life, 4:133, 4:134 genetic modification techniques,

2:107-108 genetically modified, traits,

2:106-107 herbicide-resistant crops, 1:58,

4:131-132, 4:134 industrial enzymes, 4:134-135 insect-resistant crops, 4:134 particle-mediated transformation,

4:132-133 patenting, 1:73 regulatory concerns, 2:107 tobacco, 1:69, 4:130 uses, 1:62, 1:63

vector-mediated transformation, 4:132

Transgenics, defined, 4:182 Transient neonatal diabetes

(TNDM), 1:212 Transition mutations, 3:95 Translation, 4:135-139

alternative splicing, 2:31, 2:53,

2:62, 2:63 defined, 1:29, 2:10, 3:60, 4:42 determining location of, 2:187 E. colt, 2:10

elongation phase, 4:136, 4:138 initiation phase, 4:136, 4:137-138 procedure, 1:112, 1:225, 2:52-53, 2:84, 3:70-71, 4:43-44, 4:50-51 pseudogenes, 2:30 regulatory mechanisms, 2:62 release phase, 4:136 signal sequences, 3:202-203 termination phase, 4:136, 4:138 transplastomics techniques, 2:108

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