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Chakrabarty, Ananda, 1:61, 4:129 Chaotropic salts, 3:221 Chaperones, molecular (chaper-onins), 1:116-119 discovery of, 1:116 energy requirements, 1:116-117, 1:117

functions, 1:116-117, 2:164,

3:203, 4:168 Hsp70 and Hsp60 systems,

1:116, 1:117, 1:118 and human disease, 1:118 Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, 4:4 Chargaff, Erwin, 1:250-251, 4:172 Chargafps ratios, 1:250-251, 4:172 Charge density, defined, 2:46 Chase, Alfred, 1:204 Chase, Martha, 3:104, 3:105, 4:120 Cheapdate mutant fruit flies, 1:5-6 Cheetahs, population bottlenecks,

1:189 Chelation bioremediation role, 1:60 DNA purification role, 3:221 Chemicals, toxic. See Industrial toxins; Mutagens Chemiosmotic gradients, 3:51 Chemistry, combinatorial. See Combinatorial chemistry Chemokine receptors of retroviruses, 4:36 structure, 1:55 Chemolithotrophs, described, 2:13 Chemotaxis, defined, 2:158 Chemotherapy and immunodeficiency, 4:74 pharmacogenomics role, 3:146 Chi sequences, E. coli, 2:117 Chiasmata, in crossing over, 1:194,

1:195, 3:26 Chickenpox

AIDS and, 2:155 characteristics, 4:165 Children's Bureau (Maternal and Child Health Bureau), PKU screening, 3:219 Chimeras, embryonic stem cells and,

2:3-5, 2:5, 4:125 Chimney sweeps, and cancer, 1:98-99

Chimpanzee foamy spumavirus, 4:35 Chimpanzees, genetic diversity,

3:167-168, 3:168 Chiron Corporation, 1:72 Chi-square test, 3:194-195 Chitin, in cell walls, 1:36 Chlamydia trachomatis, genome characteristics, 1:142

Chlamydiophila pneumonia, genome characteristics, 1:142 Chlamydomonas, as model organism,

3:61 Chlorophyll albino plants, 3:10 function, 1:112 Chloroplasts defined, 2:194, 3:149, 4:42 ribosomes, 4:42 ribozymes, 4:44 structure and function, 1:112,

2:194, 4:50 transplastomics, 2:108 Chloroplasts, genome base pairs, number, 2:116 cpDNA, 2:194, 2:195, 2:196,

2:198, 3:55 distinguished from eukaryotes,

2:112, 2:195-196 evolutionary origin, 2:12, 2:108,

2:116, 2:194-196, 3:56-57 as evolutionary study tool, 2:198 inheritance patterns, 2:196-197 vegetative segregation, 2:197 Cholera, genetic studies, 1:139-140 Cholesterol diabetes and, 1:212 familial hypercholesterolemia and, 2:57 hypercholesterolemia, 4:4-5 metabolism, as quantitative trait, 4:2

Chondrocytes achondroplasia and, 2:130 defined, 2:130 Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) defined, 1:258, 2:97 for Down syndrome, 1:258 uses, 3:184, 3:187 Chorismate, as tryptophan metabolite, 3:132 Chromatids defined, 1:126, 3:106 See also Chromosomes; Crossing over (recombination) Chromatin

ATP-dependent complexes,

1:138-139 condensation, 2:63, 2:65, 2:112-113, 2:164, 3:25 defined, 1:126, 2:63 disruption of, 1:137-138 heterochromatin-euchromatin conversion, 1:134-135, 2:65 methylation of, 3:77 in nucleus, 3:120, 3120, 3:121 structure, 1:133-134

Chromatin-remodeling factors (enzymes), 1:137-138, 4:111 Chromatography in mass spectrometry analysis, 3:19

as protein sequencing tool, 3:197 Chromatosomes, defined, 1:133 Chromomeres, 1:136 Chromophores, role in color vision, 1:171

Chromosomal aberrations, 1:119-125

assays for, 3:92-93, 3:182-185 birth defects, 1:75, 1:79, 3:182 breakage-fusion-bridge cycle,

3:21, 3:22 candidate gene studies of, 2:59 causes, 1:119, 1:123 centromeres lacking, 3:97 consequences, 4:67-68 deletions, 1:122, 1:123, 1124 DNA methylation role, 3:49 duplications, 1:122, 1:123-124,

1124, 3:97 gene evolution role, 2:28 history of discoveries, 1:119 intersex organisms, 1:25, 3:77,

3:164, 4:80, 4:82, 4:127, 4:175 inversions, 1:122, 1:124-125,

1124, 3:97 nomenclature, 3:107 polyspermy, 2:35, 3:163-164 prenatal diagnosis, 2:97,

3:182-187 recurrence risk, 1:125 techniques for studying, 1:119 translocations, 1:122-123, 1:124, 3:96-97, 3:127, 3:128-129, 4:154

uniparental disomy, 2:185 of Y chromosomes, 4:177 See also Aneuploidy; Nondisjunction; Polyploidy Chromosomal aberrations, specific disorders

Angelman's syndrome, 1:123,

2:185, 2:205 cancer, 3:127, 3:130 Klinefelter's syndrome, 1:2, 1:79,

1:121-122, 3:111, 4:80, 4:174 Prader-Willi syndrome, 1:123,

2:185, 2:205 See also Down syndrome; Fragile X syndrome; Turner's syndrome

Chromosomal banding, 1:125-129, 3:106, 3107 bands, defined, 1:119 C-banding, 1126, 1:128

cell synchronization, 1:128 DAPI dyes, 1:127 FISH technique, 1:128-129, 1:145

G-banding, 1:127, 1:127, 1:128 GTG banding, 1:127 NOR-staining, 1:128 numbering, 1:132, 1:135-136 polytene chromosomes,

1:136-137, 2:44 Q-banding, 1:119, 1:127, 1:135 R-banding, 1:128 Chromosomal territories, 3:121-122, 3:122

Chromosomal theory of inheritance, history, 1:129-132, 2:42-43, 2:50, 3:102

See also DNA structure and function, history; Gene nature, history; McClintock, Barbara; Mendelian genetics; Morgan, Thomas Hunt; Muller, Hermann

Chromosome mapping. See Mapping genes

Chromosome painting (spectral karyotyping), 3:183 Chromosome terminology,

3:106-107 Chromosomes, artificial, 1:144-146 bacterial (BACs), 1:144-146,

1:222-224 mammalian (MACs), 1:145, 1:146

yeast (YACs), 1:144-145, 1:222-224 Chromosomes, circular Archaea, 1:36

conjugation instructions, 1:182 eubacteria, 1:140, 2:14-15, 3:132, 4:12

mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes, 2:116, 2:196, 3:55-56 prokaryotes, 1:139-140, 1:143,

2:14-15, 2:116, 4:12 telomeres lacking, 4:104 See also Plasmids Chromosomes, eukaryotic, 1:105, 1:132-139, 1:133 acentric fragments, 1:114 acrocentric, 1:125 autosomes, 1:3, 1:79, 1:119,

1:196-197 chromatin-remodeling complexes, 1:138-139 dicentric, 1:114

distinguished from prokaryotes,

1:132, 1:139 function, 1:144

haploid complements, 2:113, 3:24 heterochromatin-euchromatin conversion, 1:134-135, 2:65 higher-order organization,

1:132-134, 1:134 holocentric (holokinetic), 1:114 karyotypes, 1:127, 3:108 "knobs," staining, 3:10 in nucleus, 1:112, 1:132-133,

3:119-126 number range, 2:113-114 p and q arms, 1:135-136, 2:39,

3:106-107 polyspermy and, 2:35 polytene, 1:126, 1:136-137,

1:136, 2:43-44 puffing, 1:126, 1:136-137, 1:136 ribonuclease role, 3:114-115 structure, 1:125-126, 1:132,

1:134, 1:135-136, 1:249 See also Autosomes; Cells, eukaryotic; Chromosomes, sex; Crossing over (recombination); Eukaryotes; Meiosis; Mitosis; Polyploidy; Telomeres Chromosomes, homologous defined, 1:123

See also Crossing over (recombination)

Chromosomes, origin of term,

1:130, 1:132 Chromosomes, prokaryotic, 1:139-144

distinguished from eukaryotes,

1:132, 1:139 domains, 1:140-141 function, 1:144

minimal-gene-set concept, 1:143 number, range, 2:113 operons, 1:142 replication, 1:141, 2:15 shape, 1:139-140, 1:143, 2:14-15, 2:116

supercoiled DNA, 1:141, 1:143 transposable genetic elements,

4:144-145 See also Cells, prokaryotic; Conjugation; Mitosis; Plasmids; Prokaryotes Chromosomes, sex, 2:114

aneuploidy, 1:121, 3:109-112, 4:80 as barrier to polyploidy, 3:164 evolution of, 4:174, 4:177 human, number, 1:79, 1:119, 1:137, 1:196, 2:33, 2:113, 2:174, 2:199, 3:24, 3:76, 3:106, 3:108-109, 3:111, 3:182 intersex organisms, 1:25, 3:77, 3:164, 4:80, 4:82, 4:127, 4:175

lacking in plants, 3:164 monosomy, 3:110-111 mutations, 1:120 See also Sex determination; Tri-somy; X chromosomes; Y chromosomes Chronic granulomatous disease, genomic screening, 2:168 Chrysanthemums, polyploid, 3:166 Cilia, 1:105

Ciliates, ploidy in, 2:115 Cip/Kip family proteins, 1:107, 1:108 Ciproflaxin (Cipro), 2:15 Circadian, defined, 1:36 Cis regulatory elements, 4:114 Citric acid, as phytochelator, 1:60 CJD (Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease),

3:188, 3:189-190 C-Jun transcription factor, 3:130 CKIs (CDK inhibitors), 1:106-107 Classical hybrid genetics, 1:146-149 allele inheritance patterns,

1:147-148 predictive value, 1:146-147,

1:148-149 Punnett squares, 1:148 X-linked inheritance studies,

1:130-131 See also Chromosomal theory of inheritance, history; Gene nature, history; Mendelian genetics Classification analysis, DNA

microarray tools, 1:228 ClB chromosomes, 3:91-92 Cleave/cleavage, defined, 1:220,

3:113 Cleft chin, 2:202

1:78, 2:130 CLIA (Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act), 3:218 Climatic bottlenecks, 3:168-169, 3:169

Clinical geneticists, 1:149-151 to diagnose birth defects, 1:74 as genetic counselors, 2:90,

2:91-92 genetic disease research,

1:213-215 vs. medical geneticist, 1:149 probability tools, 3:193-194 Clinical Laboratory Improvement

Act (CLIA), 3:218 Clinical trials databases, 1:102-103 defined, 1:69, 2:82 gene therapy, ethical issues, 1:69, 2:81, 2:83

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