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Thus, statistics is a relatively new scientific discipline that uses both mathematics and philosophy for exploratory data analysis, point estimation, and hypothesis testing. The ultimate utility of statistics is for making decisions about hypotheses to make inferences about the answers to scientific questions. see also Gene Discovery; Gene Therapy: Ethical Issues; Statistical Geneticist; Twins.

Jason H. Moore

Bibliography

Gonick, Larry, and Woollcott Smith. The Cartoon Guide to Statistics. New York: Harper Collins, 1993.

Jaisingh, Lloyd R. Statistics for the Utterly Confused. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000.

Salsberg, David. The Lady Tasting Tea: How Statistics Revolutionized Science in the Twentieth Century. New York: W. H. Freeman, 2001.

Internet Resource

HyperStat Online: An Introductory Statistics Book and Online Tutorial for Help in Statistics Courses. David M. Lane., ed. <http://davidmlane.com/hyperstat/>.

Stem Cells See Embryonic Stem Cells lipid fat or waxlike molecule, insoluble in water enzyme a protein that controls a reaction in a cell retina light-sensitive layer at the rear of the eye

Tay-Sachs Disease

Tay-Sachs disease is a severe genetic disease of the nervous system that is nearly always fatal, usually by three to four years of age. It is caused by mutations in the HEXA gene, which codes for a component of the enzyme ^-hexosaminidase A or "Hex A." The resulting accumulation of a brain lipid called GM2 ganglioside produces brain and spinal cord degeneration. It is a rare disease that is found in all populations, but it is particularly prevalent in Ashkenazi Jews of Eastern European origin. There is no treatment, but research aimed at treating the disease by blocking synthesis of the affected molecules has been ongoing since the late 1990s. Carriers can be identified by DNA or enzyme tests and prenatal diagnosis is available to at-risk families.

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