Oooc oc

Gene targeting (continued)

positive and negative selection,

4:125-126 procedures, 2:4 RNA interference tools, 4:54 rodent models, 4:61, 4:124-127 therapeutic uses, 2:73 vectors, 2:71, 2:72, 4:125-126 Gene therapy, 2:74-80 advantages, 2:83 antisense nucleotide tools, 1:29,

1:30-31 disadvantages, 2:77 disease targets, 2:74 ectopic expression toxicity, 2:74 gene targeting tools, 2:73, 2:81 genomics industry role,

2:124-125 germ line vs. somatic cell therapy, 2:80-81, 2:82-83 lipid vesicle vectors, 2:76-77 longevity of gene expression,

2:77, 2:81 patent issues, 3:137 recombinant adenovirus vectors,

2:75-77, 2:78 recombinant DNA tools, 4:5-6 retrovirus vectors, 2:76 ribozyme tools, 2:79, 4:46 in utero, 2:81, 2:82 See also Stem cells, embryonic Gene therapy, ethical issues, 2:80-83

clinical trial safety, 2:81 disease treatment vs. trait enhancement, 2:82-83 embryonic stem cells, 2:6 germ line vs. somatic cell therapy, 2:80-81, 2:82-83 informed consent, 1:69, 2:81-82 success concerns, 2:83 Gene therapy, specific diseases cancer, 2:74, 2:79, 2:81 cardiovascular disease, 1:103 cystic fibrosis, 1:201, 2:81 hemophilia, 2:78, 2:80, 2:145 HIV/AIDS, 2:74, 2:80, 4:46 metabolic diseases, 3:39 muscular dystrophies, 2:75,

SCID, 2:76, 2:81, 4:75-78 sickle-cell disease, 2:78-79, 2:80, 2:138

Tay-Sachs disease, 4:102 thalassemias, 2:140 Gene trees, 4:178, 4:178

Gene walking, 1:202 Genecor, 1:73

Gene-environment interactions, 2:54-57

disease role, 1:213, 1:214 and divergence from common ancestry, 3:63 as eugenics rebuttal, 2:20, 3:81 in gene discovery studies, 2:58 and gene expression, 1:160, 2:61-62 methods for identifying, 2:56 and mutation rates, 3:99-100 patterns, 2:56-57 public health role, 3:217 quantitative trait role, 4:1-3 twins, 2:58, 4:157-158, 4:160,

4:161-162 See also Complex (polygenic) traits

Gene-environment interactions, specific diseases and traits alcoholism, 1:51

Alzheimer's disease, 1:18, 1:181, 2:56

birth defects, 1:77 cancer, 1:90, 1:92, 1:179-180 cardiovascular disease, 2:102 diabetes, 2:102

familial hypercholesterolemia, 2:57

intelligence, 2:207, 2:209-210, 2:211

phenylketonuria, 2:55-56 psychiatric disorders, 3:214 sexual orientation, 4:83-84 Genentech, 1:72, 2:125, 4:129 General cognitive ability (g), 2:207-211 See also Intelligence General Electric Corporation oil spill cleanup, 1:61 PCB pollution, 1:59 Genes, 2:50-54

additive effects, 1:178-179, 1:178 as catalysts, 3:102, 3:103 causative and susceptibility, 1:17, 1:18, 1:179, 2:55, 2:100, 2:118-120, 2:124 for energy metabolism, 2:194 as enzymes, 3:102-103 length, 2:52

minimal number required, 1:143 modifier, 3:81

multiplicative effects, 1:178-179,

1:179 mutable, 3:21 naming, 3:107-108

one gene-one enzyme model,

3:76, 3:103 one gene-one polypeptide model, 3:103

one gene-one protein model, 3:103

overlapping, 2:85-86, 3:135-136 paralogous, 2:158, 3:210 physical vs. genetic linkage,

3:5-6, 3:5 similarities to proteins, 1:52-53 size vs. mutation rate, 3:99-100 structure and function, 2:50,

See also Eukaryotes, genomes; Evolution, of genes; Genomes; Human genome; Prokaryotes, genomes; Pseudogenes; specific organisms Genesis 3000 sequencers, 1:44 Gene-specific factors activators and repressors, 4:114 function, 4:113 Genetic Alliance, 2:105 Genetic code, 2:83-87

coding and noncoding regions, 2:50, 2:52, 2:114-115, 3:82-83, 3:93, 3:99, 3:105, 3:160 codon table, 2:85, 4:137 defined, 4:137

DNA and RNA alphabets,

2:83-84, 4:135 exceptions to universal code,

2:86-87 gaps in, 2:85-86 history, 1:252-253 homologies, comparing,

2:157-158, 3:61 human, sample, 2:113 mutations, and evolution,

2:26-30, 2:27 mutations, consequences,

3:94-95 overlapping genes, 2:85-86,

3:135-136 for protein, 2:50, 2:52 punctuation lacking, 2:86 for RNA molecules, 2:52 sequence comparisons, mammals, 2:157

translation by RNA, 2:84 as universal, 1:61, 1:152, 2:21,

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