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Cancer, colon (continued)

sequential activation of oncogenes, 3:131 statistics, 1:93, 1:166 Cancer Genome and Anatomy Project, 1:229 Cancer, research tools antisense nucleotides, 1:29, 1:30 bioinformatics, 1:56 cytogenetics analysis, 1:119 DNA microarrays, 1:227-229, 2:119

gene sequence Web sites, 2:176 Human Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 2:175 Human Genome Project contributions, 2:171 rodent models, 4:60-61 Cancer, specific organs bile duct, 1:169 bladder, 1:93, 1:169 cervix, 3:175, 4:155, 4:165 esophagus, 1:93 intestines, 1:169 kidneys, 1:93 liver, 1:93 lungs, 1:93, 1:180 ovaries, 1:93, 1:169, 2:102, 3:218,

4:22 pancreas, 1:93 prostate gland, 1:93, 3:175 renal pelvis, 1:169 skin, 1:93, 1:99 stomach, 1:93, 1:169 testes, 1:25, 1:93, 4:177 ureters, 1:169 uterus, 1:93

See also Leukemia; Retinoblas-tomas Cancer, treatments cost and access concerns, 1:69 DNA vaccines, 1:255 drug therapies, 1:97, 1:153, 3:146 gene therapy, 2:74, 2:79, 2:81 humanized antibodies, 2:125 Cancer, types of

B-cell lymphomas, 2:155, 3:146 Kaposi's sarcoma, 2:151, 4:169 tissue-related tumor types, 1:93 Wilms tumor, 2:132, 2:185 See also Retinoblastomas Candidate-gene studies behavior genetics, 1:48 cardiovascular disease, 1:101-103 in gene discovery, 2:59, 2:60, 2:170 Cann, Rebecca, 3:67

Cannibalism, kuru disease and, 3:189 Canola, genetically engineered,

2:107, 4:134 CAP (Colorado Adoption Study), 2:210

Capecchi, Mario, 4:125, 4:126 Capillary electrophoresis, 4:74 Capsids, viral, 4:118-120, 4:164,

4:165 Capsomeres, 4:165 Captive breeding programs, 1:187, 1:191

Carbohydrate metabolism disorders, 3:43-44 normal function, 3:41 Carbon, as electron acceptor, 2:13 Carboxylase deficiency, symptoms and treatment, 3:40 Carboxypeptidase A and B, as protein sequencing tool, 3:198 Carcinogenesis two-hit theory, 3:131, 4:153 See also Mutagenesis Carcinogens, 1:97-100

3:87, 3:92 defined, 1:245, 3:89 in diet, 1:91, 1:92 distinguished from mutagens, 3:87

industrial toxins, 1:92, 1:97 procarcinogens, 1:99 reducing exposure to, 1:100 repair gene mutations, 1:95-96 soot, 1:98-99, 1:244 and spontaneous mutations, 1:97 tumor suppressor gene mutations, 1:99-100 viruses as, 1:92, 1:97, 1:99-100, 3:127, 3:130, 4:34, 4:169-170 See also Mutagens; Radiation, ionizing; Radiation, ultraviolet; Smoking (tobacco) Carcinomas adenoma-carcinoma sequence,

1:167 defined, 1:93 Cardiomyopathy, defined, 3:42 Cardiovascular disease, 1:101-103 aging and, 1:7, 1:8 birth defects, 1:75 candidate-gene studies, 1:101,

1:102-103 causative genes, 1:101 as complex trait, 1:101-103,

"Disease Model" mouse strains, 3:62

disease-susceptibility genes, 1:101 early-onset coronary artery disease, 1:101-103 gene-linkage analysis, 1:101,

1:102-103 genetic counseling, 2:90 genetic testing, 2:105 hardening of arteries, 1:16 lifestyle and, 1:6, 1:101, 2:105 metabolic disorders, 3:42, 3:43 mitochondrial diseases, 3:54 ongoing studies, 1:102-103 plaque buildup, 1:102 progeria and, 1:1 as quantitative trait, 4:2 risk factors, 1:101 stem cell research tools, 2:5-6 therapies, 1:103, 2:105 tPA to control, 1:72-73 treatment cost and access, 1:69 twin studies, 4:162 Carriers, gene asymptomatic, 2:93, 2:137, 3:177 cystic fibrosis, 2:128 defined, 2:97, 3:38 manifesting, 2:204 metabolic diseases, 3:38-39 muscular dystrophy, Duchenne, 3:85

obligate, 2:142-143 population screening, 3:176, 3:177

Queen Victoria as, 2:142, 2:144, 4:174

recessive traits, 2:202-203 sickle-cell disease, 2:93, 2:137 Tay-Sachs disease, 2:96 X-linked disorders, 2:101, 2:203 See also Genetic discrimination; Genetic testing; Inheritance patterns Cartilage collagen proteins, 2:29 and growth disorders, 2:129 skeletal dysplasia role, 2:130-132 Cartilage matrix protein mutations,

2:131-132 Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein

(COMP), 2:131-132 Cartilage-hair hypoplasia, 4:76 Case-control studies, 2:56 Caspase inhibitors, 1:33 Catabolic reactions defined, 1:110

ganglioside metabolism, 4:99

Catalysis/catalysts bioremediation role, 1:62 as biotechnology tools, 1:63 defined, 1:19, 2:25, 3:103, 4:42 gene role, 3:102, 3:103 ribozymes as, 2:25, 2:79, 4:44-46 See also Enzymes Catechol-O-Methyltransferase

(COMT) gene, 1:41 Cathodes, defined, 2:45 Catholic Church, on reproductive interventions, 4:28 Caucasians

Alzheimer's disease, 2:56 cystic fibrosis, 1:202 eugenic fitness ranking, 2:17 genotype frequencies, 3:172 IQs, 2:209 Causative genes, 1:17, 1:18 Cavanee, Webster, 3:130 Caviar, illegal trade concerns, 1:190 C-banding of chromosomes, 1:126, 1:128

CCR5 receptors, immune system function, 2:152, 2:154 CD4T cells attachment role, 4:36 destroyed by HIV, 2:153, 2:154 immune system function, 2:152 number, as AIDS indicator, 2:155 Cdc6 protein, 4:18 CDK inhibitors (CKIs), 1:106-107 CDKN1C gene, and Beckwith-

Wiedemann syndrome, 4:153 CDKs (cyclin-dependent kinases),

1:104, 1:105-108, 1:106 Cech, Tom, 4:44 Cecropia moths, antimicrobial protein genes, 2:107 CED (cell death proteins), 1:32-33 Celera Genomics, Human Genome Project, 2:113, 2:123, 2:174, 2:177

Cell autonomous mechanism, sexual determination, 4:82 Cell cultures, legal ownership of, 3:3-4

Cell cycle, 1:103-108, 1:104 aberrant phosphorylation and, 3:178

apoptosis, 1:31-33, 1:96, 1:105 chloroplasts, role, 1:112 continually cycling cells, 1:103 defined, 4:51

deregulation and cancer, 1:94-97, 1:107-108, 1:167-169, 4:169

division phase, 2:112-113 DNA synthesis (S) phase, 1:104-105, 1:104, 3:25-26, 3:57-59, 4:18, 4:154 growth (G1 and G2) phases, 1:104-105, 3:57-59, 4:18 Hayflick Limit, 4:105 immortal cells, 4:104-106 microscopic observations, 1:130 mitochondria, role, 1:111-112 nucleus, role, 1:112 protein synthesis, modification, export, 1:112-113 quiescent (G0) phase, 1:104-105, 1:104

regulation of, 1:104-105, 1:104,

1:105-107, 1:106 senescence, 1:3, 1:96 tumor suppressor gene role,

4:152-155 See also Interphase; Meiosis; Mitosis; Signal transduction Cell death, programmed. See Apop-tosis

Cell death proteins (CED), 1:32-33 Cell development. See Development, genetic control of Cell division. See Cytokinesis; Meio-

sis; Mitosis; Replication Cell lineage, defined, 4:63 Cell membranes

HIV transport through, 2:152 plasma membranes, 1:105, 1:109, 1:113

structure and function, 1:109 transport across, 1:109 See also Nuclear membranes (envelopes) Cell synchronization, 1:128 Cell walls penetration of, 2:108, 3:149 as phylogenetic indicators, 1:36-37

synthesis, and antibiotics, 1:27, 2:11

Cell-based therapy. See Gene therapy Cells, eukaryotic, 1:I08-H3

characteristics, 1:105, 1:108-109 distinguished from Archaea,

1:36-37, 2:11 distinguished from prokaryotes, 1:108, 2:11, 2:12, 2:112 metabolism, 1:110-111 proteins and membrane transport, 1:109 signal transduction, 1:110,

2:158-159 transfer of genes from cytoplasm to nucleus, 3:57

See also Cell cycle; Chromosomes, eukaryotic; Eukaryotes Cells, prokaryotic distinguished from eukaryotes, 1:108, 2:11, 2:12, 2:112 response to environmental signals, 2:158-159 See also Cell cycle; Chromosomes, prokaryotic; Prokaryotes Cellular oncogenes (c-onc), 4:38 Centenarians characteristics, 1:8 defined, 1:1 Center for the Study of Human Polymorphisms (CEPH), 3:12, 3:13

Centimorgans, defined, 3:7, 3:12 Central tendency, in statistical analyses, 4:96 Centrioles, 1:105 Centromeres, 1:114-116, 1:115 banding techniques for, 1:135 defined, 1:135, 2:115, 3:49 division of, 3:29 heterochromatin and, 3:121 lacking, consequences, 3:97 pericentric and paracentric inversions, 1:123-124 STRs, 4:8-9 structure and function, 1:114-115, 1:135, 1:144, 3:25, 3:58

Centrosomes, 3:121 Ceramide, 4:98, 4:99 Cerebrosidase deficiency, 3:45 Cerebrovascular disease

Alzheimer's disease and, 1:18 defined, 1:15 dementia and, 1:15 Cervical lipodysplasia, progeroid aspects, 1:2 Cervix cancer, HPV and, 4:155, 4:165 cancer, Pap smears, 3:175 development, 1:22 function, 2:35 Cetus Corp., Human Genome Project role, 2:172 CF. See Cystic fibrosis C-Fos transcription factor, 3:130 CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene, 1:202, 2:60, 2:127-128 CGL (congenital generalized lipody-

strophic) diabetes, 1:211, 2:203 Chain termination method (Sanger method), 1:43, 1:198, 4:71-73, 4:72

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