Ooocx

panic disorder, 3:213 schizophrenia, 3:213, 3:214-215 social phobia, 3:214 Tourette's syndrome, 3:214,

3:215-216 twin studies, 4:162 See also Alcoholism; Alzheimer's disease; Huntington's disease; Mental retardation PTC (phenylthio-carbamide), ability to taste, 2:191 Public health, 3:216-220

antibiotic resistance concerns,

1:26, 1:28, 1:185, 3:217 approaches in genetics,

3:216-217 communication and information role, 3:219 epidemiology studies, 2:6-7,

3:217-218 genetic testing role, 3:218 Human Genome Project and, 3:215

intervention role, 3:218-219 and life span, 1:6 population screening, 1:202-203, 2:6-7, 2:99-100, 2:143, 3:175-178 surveillance activities, 3:217 viral-disease control, 4:171 Puffenberger, Erik, 2:190-191 Puffer fish, as model organism, 3:61 Puffing, of chromosomes, 1:126,

1:136-137, 1:136 Pulse-field gel electrophoresis,

2:49-50, 4:33 Punnett, Reginald, 3:33, 3:35, 3:36 Punnett squares, 1:148, 3:33, 3:35,

3:193-194 Pure-breeding lines, Mendel's experiments, 3:30 Purification of DNA. See DNA

purification Purines base stacking, 1:217 in codons, wobble hypothesis, 2:85

depurination, 1:240

and DNA structure, 1:215-220,

3:44, 3:118-119 metabolism disorders, 3:40, 3:44 reactions with aflatoxins, 1:245 structure, 3:115 transition mutations, 3:95 See also Adenine; Guanine Puromycin, resistance to, 2:72 Puromycin-n-acetyl-transferase (pac)

gene, as selectable marker, 2:72 Pyloric stenosis, 1:77

Pyrimidines base stacking, 1:217 in codons, wobble hypothesis, 2:85

depyrimidination, 1:240 dimers, as mutagens, 3:88-89 and DNA structure, 1:215-220,

3:44, 3:118-119 metabolism disorders, 3:40, 3:44 structure, 3:115 transition mutations, 3:95 See also Cytosine; Thymine; Uracil

Pyrococcus, inteins, 3:181 Pyrolobus fumarii, 1:38 Pyruvate, 3:44

Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, 3:54

Q-banding of chromosomes, 1:119,

1:127, 1:135 QTL (quantitative trait loci), 4:1-3 Quanacrine mustard, 1:127 Quantitative trait loci (QTL), 4:1-3 Quantitative (continuous) traits, 4:1-3

bottom-up (measured) analysis, 4:3

complex effects on phenotype, 4:2-3

endophenotypes, 4:2, 4:2 epistatic interactions, 4:1-3 examples, 4:1, 4:2, 4:2, 4:3 gene-environment interactions, 4:1-2

genetic architecture of, 4:1-2 in maize, 3:9

top-down (unmeasured) analysis, 4:3

See also Complex (polygenic) traits

Queen Victoria, as hemophilia carrier, 2:142, 2:144, 4:174 Quiescent, defined, 1:163 Quinacrine dihydrochloride, 1:127 Quorum-sensing mechanisms, 4:121

Rabies virus (rhabdovirus) structure, 4:165, 4:170 vaccine to combat, 4:171 Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, 1:211

Racial and ethnic differences blood types, 3:172 cancer, breast, 1:90, 1:91

cystic fibrosis, 1:202, 1:203 diabetes, 1:210 genetic testing and, 2:99-100 genotype frequencies, 3:172 hemophilia, 2:142 Human Genome Project concerns, 2:175 intelligence, 2:209 interracial crosses, benefits,

2:147-148 molecular anthropology tools,

3:66, 3:67 in pedigrees, 3:141-142 sickle-cell disease, 2:137 thalassemias, 2:140 See also Eugenics Radiation from atomic bombs, 2:171, 2:173 defined, 1:99, 3:81 hyperaccumulators of, 1:61 Radiation genetics, 3:81 Radiation, ionizing and cancer, 1:91, 1:92, 3:128 and chromosomal aberrations,

1:119, 1:123, 3:99 and DNA damage, 1:239, 1:242, 3:89

dose-mutability relationships, 3:103

Muller's research, 3:81, 3:88, 3:90, 3:91-92, 3:103 Radiation, ultraviolet and cancer, 1:99, 1:100, 3:128 and chromosomal aberrations, 1:119

and DNA damage, 1:239, 1:244, 3:88-89 RAG1 and 2 genes, 4:76 Ragged red muscle fibers, 3:53, 3:53 Ramsey, Paul, 4:26 RAR (retinoic acid receptor), function, 2:163 Ras and ras genes and proteins,

1:99-100, 3:128, 3:130 Rats. See Rodent models RB gene, and retinoblastomas, 3:130 R-banding of chromosomes, 1:128 RCP (red cone pigment) genes, 1:171 In re Application of Bergy, 3:137 In re Kratz, 3:137 Reading frames, 4:4-5 alternate, 2:117 disease role, 4:4-5 open (ORFs), 1:154, 2:53, 3:209,

4:9, 4:145 overlapping genes, 2:85-86,

3:135-136 See also Frameshift mutations

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