developed in parallel to mutant screening approaches. A technique that complements mutagenesis screens in zebrafish very well is known as gene knockdown. This approach uses modified antisense oligonucleotides to block the function of specific genes. These oligonuculeotides contain a substitution of the sugar ring in the nucleic acid backbone that makes them resistant to degradation by enzymes in living tissues. Gene knockdown is widely used to study mutant phenotypes of genes for which chemically induced mutations are not available.

The usefulness of the zebrafish as a model organism originates in its unique combination of genetic and embryological characteristics. Genetic approaches, such as mutagenesis screens, can be combined in zebrafish with other techniques, enabling researchers to study cell movements, cell birth dates, or interactions between cells in the living embryo. Although most of the zebrafish genetic research focuses on embryonic development, other problems, such as the genetic basis of circadian rhythms, cancer formation, neurodegenerative disorders, and drug addiction, are also being addressed. see also DNA Libraries; Model Organisms; Mutagenesis; Transgenic Organisms: Ethical Issues.

Jarema Malicki


Amsterdam, A., and N. Hopkins. "Retrovirus Mediated Insertional Mutagenesis in Zebrafish." Methods of Cell Biology 60 (1999): 87-98.

Driever, W., et al. "A Genetic Screen for Mutations Affecting Embryogenesis in Zebrafish." Development 123 (1996): 37-46.

Haffter, P., et al. "The Identification of Genes with Unique and Essential Functions in the Development of the Zebrafish, Danio rerio." Development 123 (1996): 1-36.

Kimmel, C. B., et al. "Stages of Embryonic Development of the Zebrafish." Development Dynamics 203 (1995): 253-310.

Malicki, Jarema. "Harnessing the Power of Forward Genetics: Analysis of Neuronal Diversity and Patterning in the Zebrafish Retina." Trends in Neuroscience 23 (2000): 531-541.

Nasevicius, A., and S. C. Ekker. "Effective Targeted Gene 'Knockdown' in Zebrafish." Nature Genetics 26 (2000): 457.

Thisse, C., and L. Zon. "Organogenesis-Heart and Blood Formation from the Zebrafish Point of View." Science 295 (2002): 216-220.

Westerfield, M. The Zebrafish Book. Eugene: University of Oregon Press, 1994.

Internet Resource

Zebrafish Information Network. <>.

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