Ooocx

power of study, 4:97 quantitative trait analyses, 4:2-3 type I errors, 4:97 type II errors, 4:97 See also Probability Stem cells defined, 1:103, 2:138, 4:73, 4:74,

4:106 hematopoietic, 1:103 as organ transplant tool, 4:141 placental, 4:30 replication, 1:103 telomerase production, 4:106 to treat immunodeficiencies, 4:74 to treat sickle-cell disease, 2:138 Stem cells, embryonic (ES), 2:3-6 chimeras, 2:3-5, 2:5, 4:125 as disease research tools, 2:5-6 ethical concerns, 2:3, 2:6, 3:186, 4:30

ethical issues, 4:141 gene knock outs/knock ins, 2:4-5 gene targeting, 2:4, 2:73, 4:126 human research, 2:3, 2:5-6 mouse research, 2:3-5, 2:4 as organ transplant tool, 4:141 research restrictions, 1:159-160, 2:3, 4:30 Steroid hormones concentration, 2:164 influence on gene expression,

2:159, 2:164 regulation of, 2:161 Steroid receptor superfamily. See Nuclear hormone receptor superfamily Stetson and Levine, Rh system, 1:84 Stevens, Nettie, 3:74 Stigmas, defined, 1:35 Stomach, cancer, 1:93, 1:169 Stone ages, population bottlenecks,

3:169-170 Stoneking, Mark, 3:67 Stop codons (terminators) factor-dependent, 4:110 function, 2:52, 2:52, 2:53, 4:56,

4:110, 4:138 intrinsic, 4:110

introduction, alternative splicing, 1:13

lacking in pseudogenes, 3:209 mutations, consequences, 3:96 nonsense mutations, 2:127 nucleotides coding for, 2:85, 4:4,

4:4, 4:137 overlapping genes, 3:135 role of, 2:84

universal code exemptions, 2:87

Storage proteins, in egg cells, 4:51 Streisinger, George, 4:182 Streptomyces, genome characteristics, 2:116

Streptomycin, ribosomal targets, 2:16

Striatum, defined, 1:41 Stroma, of iris, 2:32 Stromatolites, as oldest fossils, 2:21-22, 2:22 Strong, J.A., 1:119 STRPs (short tandem repeat polymorphisms), 3:6, 3:14 STRs. See Short tandem repeats Stunting, causal organism, 4:165 Sturgeon, illegal trade concerns, 1:190

Sturtevant, Alfred Henry crossing-over studies, 3:75 fruit fly studies, 1:130-131,

2:42-43, 3:7, 3:73, 3:80 genes as hereditary particles, 1:155

The Mechanism of Mendelian

Heredity, 3:76 New Synthesis, 3:32 Subcutaneous, defined, 2:145 Subemovirus family, 4:164 Substance abuse. See Addiction; Alcoholism; Drug dependence; Smoking (tobacco) Substantial equivalence principle,

4:130-131 Substrate deprivation therapy, Tay-

Sachs disease, 4:102 Substrates, enzyme binding to, 3:37 Subterranean clover mottle virus, 4:164

Subtilisin enzymes, 1:63-64 Subzonal sperm insertion, 4:22 Succinylcholine, adverse reactions to, 3:144 Succinyl-CoA, 3:43 Sugars defined, 1:209

3:116, 3:117 galactose, 3:134 glucose regulation in blood, 2:160

glycosylation of amino acids,

3:178-179 lactose, lac operons and, 2:15,

3:131-135 in LPS layer, 2:11-12 ribose, 2:23, 3:115 See also Deoxyribose sugars; Glucose; Ribose "Suicide therapy," 2:79

Sulfur, as electron acceptor, 2:13 Sungene Technologies Laboratory, 3:150

Super microbes, 4:129 Superovulation, 4:21, 4:22 Superweeds, 1:11 Surrogate mothers gene cloning, 1:162, 1:163-164 legal and ethical issues, 4:24, 4:29 nuclear transplantation, 1:162,

1:163-164 transgenic mice, 4:124, 4:126 Survival of motor neurons (SMN)

protein, 3:124 Susceptibility genes, 1:17, 1:18 defined, 2:55 genetic testing for, 2:100, 2:102-105, 2:118-120, 2:124 Sutherland, Grant, 2:39-40 Sutton, Walter, 1:130, 1:149, 3:73,

3:74, 3:102 Swanson, Robert, 1:72 Sweat chloride analysis, 1:201 SWI/SNF gene complexes, 1:138 SWISS-MODEL tool, 1:53 SWISS-PROT database, 1:52, 3:209 SXR (xenobiotic receptor), function, 2:163

Sybase databases, 1:55 Symbionts defined, 2:195, 3:52, 3:55 endosymbionts, 3:52, 3:55-57 intracellular, inheritance of, 2:198

See also Endosymbionts Sympatric (ecological) speciation, 4:93

Symptomatic genetic testing, 2:99 Synaptonemal complex, in crossing over, 1:194 Syndromes, defined, 1:74 Synechocystis sp., genome characteristics, 1:142 Syngrafts, 4:139, 4:142 Syntenic genes, 3:5 Synthesis, defined, 3:132, 4:54 Syphilis, congenital, 1:75, 1:81 Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), 1:176-177 Systematics. See Taxonomy Szostak, Jack, 2:25

T cell receptors, function, 2:179, 2:181, 2:181 T cells

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