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Wide World Photos; Privacy (p. 191), © K. Beebe/Custom Medical Stock Photo; Proteins (p. 199), NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center; Proteomics (p. 207), © Geoff Tompkinson/ Science Photo Library, National Aubodon Society Collection/Photo Researchers, Inc.; Proteomics (p. 206), Lagowski/Custom Medical Stock Photo.

Volume 4

Quantitative Traits (p. 2), Photo by Peter Morenus/Courtesy of University of Connecticut; Reproductive Technology (p. 20), © R. Rawlins/Custom Medical Stock Photo; Reproductive Technology: Ethical Issues (p. 27), AP/Wide World Photos; Restriction Enzymes (p. 32), © Gabridge/Custom Medical Stock Photo; Ribosome (p. 43), © Dennis Kunkel/ Phototake; Rodent Models (p. 61), © Reuters NewMedia Inc./Corbis; Roundworm:

Caenorhabditis elegans (p. 63), © J. L. Carson/Custom Medical Stock Photo; Sanger, Fred (p. 65), © Bettmann/Corbis; Sequencing DNA (p. 74), © T. Bannor/Custom Medical Stock Photo; Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (p. 76), © Bettmann/Corbis; Tay-Sachs Disease (p. 100), © Dr. Charles J. Ball/ Corbis; Transgenic Animals (p. 125), Courtesy Cindy McKinney, Ph.D./Penn State University's Transgenic Mouse Facility; Transgenic Organisms: Ethical Issues (p. 131), © Daymon Hartley/Greenpeace; Transgenic Plants (p. 133), © Eurelios/Phototake; Transplantation (p. 140), © Reuters New Media/Corbis; Twins (p. 156), © Dennis Degnan/Corbis; X Chromosome (p. 175), © Gale Group; Yeast (p. 180), © Dennis Kunkel; Zebrafish (p. 182), Courtesy of Dr. Jordan Shin, Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital.

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Glossary a the Greek letter alpha 3 the Greek letter beta y the Greek letter gamma A the Greek letter lambda a the Greek letter sigma E. coli the bacterium Escherichia coli "-ase" suffix indicating an enzyme acidic having the properties of an acid; the opposite of basic a, a acrosomal cap tip of sperm cell that contains digestive enzymes for penetrating the egg adenoma a tumor (cell mass) of gland cells aerobic with oxygen, or requiring it agar gel derived from algae agglutinate clump together aggregate stick together algorithm procedure or set of steps allele a particular form of a gene allelic variation presence of different gene forms (alleles) in a population allergen substance that triggers an allergic reaction allolactose "other lactose"; a modified form of lactose amino acid a building block of protein amino termini the ends of a protein chain with a free NH2 group amniocentesis removal of fluid from the amniotic sac surrounding a fetus, for diagnosis amplify produce many copies of, multiply anabolic steroids hormones used to build muscle mass oooc ,oc anaerobic without oxygen or not requiring oxygen androgen testosterone or other masculinizing hormone anemia lack of oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood aneuploidy abnormal chromosome numbers angiogenesis growth of new blood vessels anion negatively charged ion anneal join together anode positive pole anterior front antibody immune-system protein that binds to foreign molecules antidiuretic a substance that prevents water loss antigen a foreign substance that provokes an immune response antigenicity ability to provoke an immune response apoptosis programmed cell death

Archaea one of three domains of life, a type of cell without a nucleus archaeans members of one of three domains of life, have types of cells without a nucleus aspirated removed with a needle and syringe aspiration inhalation of fluid or solids into the lungs association analysis estimation of the relationship between alleles or genotypes and disease asymptomatic without symptoms

ATP adenosine triphosphate, a high-energy compound used to power cell processes

ATPase an enzyme that breaks down ATP, releasing energy attenuation weaken or dilute atypical irregular autoimmune reaction of the immune system to the body's own tissues autoimmunity immune reaction to the body's own tissues autosomal describes a chromosome other than the X and Y sex-determining chromosomes autosome a chromosome that is not sex-determining (not X or Y) axon the long extension of a nerve cell down which information flows bacteriophage virus that infects bacteria basal lowest level

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base pair two nucleotides (either DNA or RNA) linked by weak bonds basic having the properties of a base; opposite of acidic benign type of tumor that does not invade surrounding tissue binding protein protein that binds to another molecule, usually either DNA or protein biodiversity degree of variety of life bioinformatics use of information technology to analyze biological data biolistic firing a microscopic pellet into a biological sample (from biological/ ballistic)

biopolymers biological molecules formed from similar smaller molecules, such as DNA or protein biopsy removal of tissue sample for diagnosis biotechnology production of useful products bipolar disorder psychiatric disease characterized by alternating mania and depression blastocyst early stage of embryonic development brackish a mix of salt water and fresh water breeding analysis analysis of the offspring ratios in breeding experiments buffers substances that counteract rapid or wide pH changes in a solution Cajal Ramon y Cajal, Spanish neuroanatomist carcinogens substances that cause cancer carrier a person with one copy of a gene for a recessive trait, who therefore does not express the trait catalyst substance that speeds a reaction without being consumed (e.g., enzyme)

catalytic describes a substance that speeds a reaction without being consumed catalyze aid in the reaction of cathode negative pole cDNA complementary DNA

cell cycle sequence of growth, replication and division that produces new cells centenarian person who lives to age 100

centromere the region of the chromosome linking chromatids cerebrovascular related to the blood vessels in the brain cerebrovascular disease stroke, aneurysm, or other circulatory disorder affecting the brain oooc ,oc charge density ratio of net charge on the protein to its molecular mass chemotaxi movement of a cell stimulated by a chemical attractant or repellent chemotherapeutic use of chemicals to kill cancer cells chloroplast the photosynthetic organelle of plants and algae chondrocyte a cell that forms cartilage chromatid a replicated chromosome before separation from its copy chromatin complex of DNA, histones, and other proteins, making up chromosomes ciliated protozoa single-celled organism possessing cilia, short hair-like extensions of the cell membrane circadian relating to day or day length cleavage hydrolysis cleave split clinical trials tests performed on human subjects codon a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides coding for one amino acid

Cold War prolonged U.S.-Soviet rivalry following World War II

colectomy colon removal colon crypts part of the large intestine complementary matching opposite, like hand and glove conformation three-dimensional shape congenital from birth conjugation a type of DNA exchange between bacteria cryo-electron microscope electron microscope that integrates multiple images to form a three-dimensional model of the sample cryopreservation use of very cold temperatures to preserve a sample cultivars plant varieties resulting from selective breeding cytochemist chemist specializing in cellular chemistry cytochemistry cellular chemistry cytogenetics study of chromosome structure and behavior cytologist a scientist who studies cells cytokine immune system signaling molecule cytokinesis division of the cell's cytoplasm cytology the study of cells cytoplasm the material in a cell, excluding the nucleus endangered in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of a species' range endogenous derived from inside the organism endometriosis disorder of the endometrium, the lining of the uterus endometrium uterine lining endonuclease enzyme that cuts DNA or RNA within the chain endoplasmic reticulum network of membranes within the cell

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cytosol fluid portion of a cell, not including the organelles de novo entirely new deleterious harmful dementia neurological illness characterized by impaired thought or awareness demography aspects of population structure, including size, age distribution, growth, and other factors denature destroy the structure of deoxynucleotide building block of DNA

dimerize linkage of two subunits dimorphism two forms diploid possessing pairs of chromosomes, one member of each pair derived from each parent disaccharide two sugar molecules linked together dizygotic fraternal or nonidentical DNA deoxyribonucleic acid domains regions dominant controlling the phenotype when one allele is present dopamine brain signaling chemical dosage compensation equalizing of expression level of X-chromosome genes between males and females, by silencing one X chromosome in females or amplifying expression in males ecosystem an ecological community and its environment ectopic expression expression of a gene in the wrong cells or tissues electrical gradient chemiosmotic gradient electrophoresis technique for separation of molecules based on size and charge eluting exiting embryogenesis development of the embryo from a fertilized egg

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