Ooocx

See also Post-translational control; Proteins; Ribosomes; RNA, messenger (mRNA); RNA, ribosomal (rRNA); RNA, transfer (tRNA) Translation, specific organisms bacteriophages, 4:118-120 eubacteria, 2:16 eukaryotes, 1:112 HIV, 2:153, 2:154 prokaryotes, 2:53 Translocation and chromosomal aberrations, 1:122-123, 1:124, 3:96-97, 3:127

defined, 1:123, 2:59, 3:81 impact on tumor suppressor genes, 4:154 and proto-oncogene activation,

3:128-129 in pseudogenes, 3:211 signal sequencing role, 3:202 See also Crossing over (recombination)

Transmembrane conductance regulator gene, cystic fibrosis, 4:127 Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), 3:188-190 Transplantation, 4:139-143 allografts, 4:139, 4:142 autografts, 4:139, 4:142 donor, defined, 4:139 donors, legal issues, 3:3-4, 4:141 ethical issues, 4:141, 4:142-143 lungs, 1:201

minor histocompatibility genes, 4:140

recipient, defined, 4:139 rejection-prevention strategies, 4:141

SMCY genes and, 4:177 syngrafts, 4:139, 4:142 T cell-MHC interactions, 2:181,

2:183, 3:82, 4:139-140, 4:141 tissue scaffolding, 4:142 T-lymphocyte response, 4:140 to treat metabolic diseases, 3:39, 3:45

xenografts, 4:139, 4:142-143, 4:142

See also Bone marrow transplants; Nuclear transplantation Transplastomics, 2:108 Transposable genetic elements, 4:143-148

Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, 1:9, 1:35 antibiotic resistance, 1:27-28

and cystic fibrosis, 1:202 defined, 2:43, 3:47, 4:53 described, 4:7, 4:143 DNA methylation role, 3:47-48 DNA transposons, 4:8, 4:9-10,

4:11, 4:143 double-stranded forms, 4:53 E. coli-mediated transformation, 1:153

as gene cloning tool, 4:148 gene evolution role, 2:30, 3:97,

4:145-146 gene expression role, 3:211-212 and hemophilia, 2:31, 2:143,

3:97, 4:146 horizontal transmission, 4:145, 4:146

4:145, 4:147-148 McClintock's hypothesis, 3:10,

3:21-22, 3:97, 4:143-144 MITEs, 4:9 as mutagens, 3:91, 3:97 non-replicative mobility, 4:147 recombination role, 4:148 replicative mobility, 4:147 retrotransposons, 4:143 retrotransposons, LTR, 4:8, 4:9-10, 4:11, 4:144, 4:145 retrotransposons, non-LTR, 4:8,

4:9-10, 4:11, 4:144, 4:145 schematic organization, 4:11 SINEs, 4:8, 4:10, 4:11, 4:144,

4:145, 4:147-148 speciation role, 4:147-148 as vectors, 2:43, 3:91, 3:97-98, 4:146

vertical transmission, 4:145-146, 4:145

See also Alu sequences Transposable genetic elements, specific organisms bacteriophages, 4:144 fruit flies, 2:43, 3:97-98, 4:145,

3:97, 4:9-10, 4:145-146 mammals, 4:145-146 primates, 3:64, 4:145-146 prokaryotes, 2:116, 2:117,

4:144-145 retroviruses, 4:145 Transposase enzymes, 4:144 Transposon tagging, 4:148 Transposons. See Transposable genetic elements

Transversion mutations, 3:95 TRAP (telomeric repeat amplification protocol), 4:106 Treponema pallidum, genome characteristics, 1:142 TRF (terminal restriction fragments), 4:104 TRiC/CCT chaperones, 1:117 Trichromat color vision defects, 1:171

Trilaminar, defined, 1:114 Trinitrotoluene (TNT), bioremedia-

tion to reveal, 1:62 Triplet code. See Codons; Genetic code

Triplet repeat diseases, 4:148-152 defined, 2:100, 4:4 expansion mutations, 4:149-150, 4:149

gene cloning tools, 4:152 genetic testing, 2:100, 4:152 noncoding gene disorders, 4:9,

4:149, 4:150 See also DNA repetitive sequences Triplet repeat diseases, specific dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, 4:150 Fragile XE syndrome, 4:150 Friedreich's ataxia, 4:150 Kennedy disease, 1:26, 4:150, 4:151

myotonic muscular dystrophy,

2:42, 3:86, 4:150 polyglutamine disorders, 4:150,

4:151-152 spinocerebellar ataxia, 2:205, 4:150

See also Fragile X syndrome; Huntington's disease Triplet repeat sequences, 4:148-149 expansion, slipped-strand DNA, 1:218

mutations, consequences, 3:96 Triploidy, 3:164

in animals, 3:164-165 defined, 3:164 Trisomy chromosomal mosaicism, 3:79 consequences, 3:109, 3:111 defined, 1:121, 3:10, 3:79 genetic testing, 2:97, 2:98 See also Down syndrome Tristan da Cunha islanders, inbreeding, 2:190, 3:174 Tritium, radioactive, to map genes, 1:139

TRNA. See RNA, transfer

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