Ooocx

biotechnology regulations, 1:11,

2:107, 4:131 Human Genome Project role, 2:173

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office

(USPTO), 1:42, 2:176 U.S. Registry of Elderly African-

American Twins, 4:159 Uterus cancer, 1:93

development, 1:22, 4:79

Vaccines classic, 1:253-254 developing, 3:71 DNA, 1:254-255, 2:121, 4:129 from genetically engineered plants, 4:134 for HIV, 2:151 for measles, 4:129 from recombinant DNA, 4:6 for viral diseases, 4:170-171 Vacuoles, 1:105 defined, 1:60 Vagina development, 1:22 function, 2:35 Valine (Val)

chemical properties, 3:200 genetic code, 2:85, 4:137 substitution, sickle-cell disease, 2:137, 2:139, 2:148, 3:200 Van der Waal's forces in base-pair stacking, 1:217 defined, 1:217 Variable expressivity, 2:201, 2:204 Variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) described, 3:162 in DNA profiling, 1:236 in linkage analyses, 3:6 as mapping tool, 3:14 minisatellites, 4:8-9 schematic organization, 4:10 Variable regions, antibodies, 2:179, 2:180

Variegate porphyria, as autosomal dominant disorder, 2:201 Variola virus, characteristics, 4:165 Varmus, Harold, 4:38 Vas deferens cystic fibrosis and, 1:200, 1:201 development, 1:21, 1:22, 1:23 Vaso-occlusive crises, 2:138 Vasopressin, post-translational control, 3:181

Vector-mediated transformation,

4:132 Vectors artificial chromosomes as,

1:145-146 defined, 1:70, 2:4, 3:91, 4:5 DNA library tools, 1:222-224 expression cloning, 1:157 gene cloning, 1:70-71,

1:152-153, 2:4, 4:128, 4:132 gene targeting, 2:71, 2:72,

4:125-126 gene therapy, 2:74-77 plasmids as, 1:222, 2:107, 3:91, 3:152

recombinant DNA, 4:5-6 retroviruses as, 4:182 for site-directed mutagenesis, 3:91

for transgenic plants, 2:107 transposons as, 2:43, 3:91,

3:97-98, 4:146 viruses as, 1:182, 1:201, 1:204, 1:222, 2:107 Vegetative segregation defined, 2:197

in mitochondria and chloroplasts,

2:197 in plasmids, 2:198 Venter, Craig, 2:113, 2:173-174, 2:175

V-erbB oncogene, 3:130 Vertical evolution, 1:27 Vesicles, defined, 1:113 Vetter, David, 1:77, 4:75, 4:76 V-fms oncogene, 3:130 Viability analysis, 1:187 Vibrio cholerae, chromosome shape,

1:139-140 VIQ (verbal ability) intelligence scores, 2:208, 2:211 Viral oncogenes (v-onc), 4:38 Viral receptors, 4:166 Viral tropism, 4:166 Viral-plasmid vectors, 1:222 Virions characteristics, 4:35 defined, 4:39 Viroids, 4:162-163 Viruses, 4:164-171

ambisense genomic segments, 4:166

antisense nucleotide tools, 1:30 as bioterrorism tools, 1:69 and cancer, 1:92, 1:100, 3:127,

3:130, 4:34, 4:169-170 capsids, 4:118-120, 4:164, 4:165 capsomeres, 4:165

chaperone proteins and, 4:168 and chromosomal aberrations, 1:123

cytotoxic T lymphocytes and, 1:32

defective particles, 4:119 defined, 4:162 and diabetes, 1:210 distinguished from free-living microbes, 4:164 dsRNA in, 1:31 escaped transgene role, 1:68 genome characteristics, 2:113, 2:117

helicase primase enzymes, 4:13 infection outcomes, 4:169 mutations, consequences, 2:128 oncoproteins, 4:155 overlapping genes, 3:135-136 plant, as biopesticides, 1:57-58 plants resistant to, 2:108, 2:109,

4:134 plaques, 4:120

positive and negative polarity,

4:165, 4:166 ribozymes, 4:44-45 size range, 4:164-165 structures, 4:165-166 techniques for examining,

4:164-165 as teratogens, 1:79-80 as vectors, 1:182, 1:201, 1:204,

1:222, 2:107 See also Bacteriophages; Retro-viruses (RNA viruses) Viruses, replication, 4:162, 4:167 assembly, maturation, and release, 4:168-169 attachment and penetration,

4:166-167 budding, 4:168

infection process, 1:255, 3:126 transduction, 4:117-120 uncoating and replication, 4:167-168 Viruses, specific types of adenoviruses, 2:75-78, 3:124, 4:169

adenoviruses, recombinant,

2:75-77, 2:78 chickenpox, 2:155 cytomegalovirus, 3:124 equine encephalitis, 4:165 helper, 4:164 hepadnaviruses, 4:168 herpes simplex, 2:76, 3:17, 3:124, 4:13

herpes zoster, 4:165

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