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Dizygotic twins. See Twins, fraternal DLBCL (diffuse B-cell lymphoma), chemotherapy, 3:146 D-loop, of mtDNA, 3:53 DM locus-associated homeodomain protein (DMAHP), 4:150 DMD. See Muscular dystrophy,

Duchenne DMPK gene, 3:86, 4:150 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) alphabet, 2:83, 4:106 polymer formation, 3:117-118, 3:118

preserving, in situ hybridization, 2:188 of viruses, 4:165-168 DNA, alphoid, 1:146 DNA, chloroplast (cpDNA) evolution of, 2:194-195 multiple copies, 2:196 as nuclear markers, 2:198 vegetative segregation, 2:197 See also Chloroplasts, genome DNA, complementary (cDNA) defined, 1:224

as gene cloning tool, 1:153, 1:154 libraries, 1:157, 1:223, 1:224 as pseudogenes, 3:211 recombinant DNA tools, 4:6 in reverse-transcription reactions,

3:159, 4:40 in situ hybridization role, 2:187-188 DNA damage. See DNA repair;

Mutagens; Mutations DNA, exogenous, 4:121-123 DNA fingerprinting. See DNA profiling

DNA footprinting, 1:220-221 applications, 1:221, 4:114 how it works, 1:220, 1:221 DNA glycosylase enzyme, 1:242,

1:243, 1:244 DNA gyrase enzyme, 2:15, 4:14-15, 4:18

DNA helicase enzyme replication role, 4:12, 4:13, 4:13,

DNA libraries, 1:222-225 applications, 1:222 artificial chromosome tools, 1:222

cDNA, 1:157, 1:223, 1:224, 4:6 combinatorial chemistry role, 1:175

expression libraries, 1:224, 4:6

gene cloning tools, 1:155 of gene mutations, 2:122,

4:182-183 genomic libraries, 1:222, 1:224 of oligonucleotides, 1:176-177 recombinant DNA tools, 4:6 SAGE, 1:229 DNA ligase enzyme

DNA repair role, 1:244 DNA replication role, 4:16, 4:18 gene cloning role, 1:152, 1:154, 4:128

recombinant DNA tool, 4:5, 4:33 DNA, linker, 1:133 DNA methylation. See Methylation, of DNA

DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs),

3:46, 3:49 DNA microarrays, 1:225-229, 1:226 Affymetrix, 1:226 applications, 1:228 bioinformatics tools, 1:227 classification analysis, 1:228 clustering analysis, 1:227 expression analysis, 1:225, 1:228, 4:40

as genomic medicine tool, 2:119 high-throughput screening tools,

1:175, 2:150 molecular hybridization tools,

1:225-226 as pharmacogenomics tool, 3:146 printed, 1:226 as proteomics tool, 2:49 SAGE analysis, 1:228-229 to study quantitative traits, 4:3 DNA, mitochondrial (mtDNA) characteristics, 3:55-56 D-loop, 3:53

in eggs and sperm, 2:197, 3:51 evolution of, 2:194-195, 3:57 as evolutionary study tool,

3:66-67 heavy and light strands, 3:56 multiple copies, 2:196 mutations, 3:51, 3:53-54 as nuclear markers, 2:198 sequence comparisons, 3:57 transcription of, 3:56 vegetative segregation, 2:197 See also Mitochondrial genome DNA polymerase I, 4:16, 4:17, 4:18 DNA polymerase III

proofreading, 4:17, 4:18 sliding clamps, 4:16, 4:17, 4:18

DNA polymerases, 1:230-233 a, 1:231, 4:17, 4:18 ยก3, 1:232

ct, 1:231-232, 4:17 e, 1:231-232, 4:17 Y, 1:232 ct, 4:17

in cycle sequencing, 1:199 DNA-dependent, 4:168 E. coli, 1:231, 3:157 end-replication problem, 4:104 as gene cloning tools, 1:152-153,

1:153, 1:154 human, 1:231-232, 4:41 incorrect polymerization, 1:231,

1:232, 3:1 13-1 14 mechanisms, 1:230-231, 1:231 in PCR, 3:154-159 polymerization function, 1:230 produced by cloning, 1:154 repair function, 1:230, 1:232,

1:241, 1:244, 1:248, 3:113-114 shape, 1:232-233 size range, 1:232 Taq, 1:38, 1:199, 3:157 See also Transcriptase, reverse DNA polymorphisms. See Polymorphisms, DNA DNA primase enzyme, 4:13, 4:16, 4:18

DNA primers, 1:64, 4:71 DNA profiling (fingerprinting), 1:233-239

blood typing, 1:233-234 CODIS, 1:235, 1:236, 1:237 contamination concerns, 1:235 DNA polymorphisms, 1:234-235, 3:163

DNA purification tools, 3:220 and DNA stability, 2:84 history, 1:73 legal concerns, 3:3, 3:4 matching techniques, 1:236, 1:238

misuse of statistics, 1:238 mtDNA D-loop as tool, 3:53 PCR as tool, 3:154, 3:156 privacy concerns, 3:192-193 repeated sequences as tools,

1:235-236, 4:11 restriction enzyme tools, 4:32,

1:238-239 Y chromosome analysis, 4:178 DNA purification, 3:220-221 electrophoresis techniques, 2:49-50

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