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Bibliography

Kazazian, Haig H., Jr. "L1 Retrotransposons Shape the Mammalian Genome." Science 289, no. 5482 (2000): 1152-1153.

Varmus, H. "Reverse Transcription." Scientific American 257, no. 3 (1987): 56-59.

Ribosome organelles membrane-bound cell compartments translation synthesis of protein using mRNA code prokaryotes single-celled organisms without a nucleus eukaryotes organisms with cells possessing a nucleus mitochondria energy-producing cell organelle chloroplasts the photo-synthetic organelles of plants and algae catalytic describes a substance that speeds a reaction without being consumed

Ribosomes are the cellular organelles that carry out protein synthesis, through a process called translation. They are found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, these molecular machines are responsible for accurately translating the linear genetic code, via the messenger RNA, into a linear sequence of amino acids to produce a protein. All cells contain ribosomes because growth requires the continued synthesis of new proteins. Ribosomes can exist in great numbers, ranging from thousands in a bacterial cell to hundreds of thousands in some human cells and hundreds of millions in a frog ovum. Ribosomes are also found in mitochondria and chloroplasts.

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