retina light-sensitive layer at the rear of the eye retroviruses RNA-containing viruses whose genomes are copied into DNA by the enzyme reverse transcriptase reverse transcriptase enzyme that copies RNA into DNA ribonuclease enzyme that cuts RNA

ribosome protein-RNA complex at which protein synthesis occurs ribozyme RNA-based catalyst RNA ribonucleic acid

RNA polymerase enzyme complex that creates RNA from DNA template

RNA triplets sets of three nucleotides salinity of, or relating to, salt sarcoma a type of malignant (cancerous) tumor scanning electron microscope microscope that produces images with depth by bouncing electrons off the surface of the sample sclerae the "whites" of the eye

? scrapie prion disease of sheep and goats segregation analysis statistical test to determine pattern of inheritance for fa trait senescence a state in a cell in which it will not divide again, even in the presence of growth factors senile plaques disease serum (pl. sera) fluid portion of the blood sexual orientation attraction to one sex or the other somatic nonreproductive; not an egg or sperm

Southern blot a technique for separating DNA fragments by electrophore-sis and then identifying a target fragment with a DNA probe

Southern blotting separating DNA fragments by electrophoresis and then identifying a target fragment with a DNA probe speciation the creation of new species spindle football-shaped structure that separates chromosomes in mitosis spindle fiber protein chains that separate chromosomes during mitosis spliceosome RNA-protein complex that removes introns from RNA transcripts spontaneous non-inherited sporadic caused by new mutations stem cell cell capable of differentiating into multiple other cell types ooocx stigma female plant sexual organ stop codon RNA triplet that halts protein synthesis striatum part of the midbrain subcutaneous under the skin sugar glucose supercoiling coiling of the helix symbiont organism that has a close relationship (symbiosis) with another symbiosis a close relationship between two species in which at least one benefits symbiotic describes a close relationship between two species in which at least one benefits synthesis creation taxon/taxa level(s) of classification, such as kingdom or phylum taxonomical derived from the science that identifies and classifies plants and animals taxonomist a scientist who identifies and classifies organisms telomere chromosome tip template a master copy tenets generally accepted beliefs terabyte a trillion bytes of data teratogenic causing birth defects teratogens substances that cause birth defects thermodynamics process of energy transfers during reactions, or the study of these processes threatened likely to become an endangered species topological describes spatial relations, or the study of these relations topology spatial relations, or the study of these relations toxicological related to poisons and their effects transcript RNA copy of a gene transcription messenger RNA formation from a DNA sequence transcription factor protein that increases the rate of transcription of a gene transduction conversion of a signal of one type into another type transgene gene introduced into an organism transgenics transfer of genes from one organism into another translation synthesis of protein using mRNA code oooc ,oc translocation movement of chromosome segment from one chromosome to another transposable genetic element DNA sequence that can be copied and moved in the genome transposon genetic element that moves within the genome trilaminar three-layer triploid possessing three sets of chromosomes trisomics mutants with one extra chromosome trisomy presence of three, instead of two, copies of a particular chromosome tumor mass of undifferentiated cells; may become cancerous tumor suppressor genes cell growths tumors masses of undifferentiated cells; may become cancerous vaccine protective antibodies vacuole cell structure used for storage or related functions van der Waal's forces weak attraction between two different molecules vector carrier vesicle membrane-bound sac virion virus particle wet lab laboratory devoted to experiments using solutions, cell cultures, and other "wet" substances wild-type most common form of a trait in a population Wilm's tumor a cancerous cell mass of the kidney

X ray crystallography use of X rays to determine the structure of a molecule xenobiotic foreign biological molecule, especially a harmful one zygote fertilized egg

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