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knocking out deleting of a gene or obstructing gene expression laparoscope surgical instrument that is inserted through a very small incision, usually guided by some type of imaging technique latent present or potential, but not apparent lesion damage ligand a molecule that binds to a receptor or other molecule ligase enzyme that repairs breaks in DNA ligate join together linkage analysis examination of co-inheritance of disease and DNA markers, used to locate disease genes lipid fat or wax-like molecule, insoluble in water loci/locus site(s) on a chromosome longitudinally lengthwise lumen the space within the tubes of the endoplasmic reticulum lymphocytes white blood cells

?lyse break apart lysis breakage macromolecular describes a large molecule, one composed of many similar parts macromolecule large molecule such as a protein, a carbohydrate, or a nucleic acid macrophage immune system cell that consumes foreign material and cellular debris malignancy cancerous tissue malignant cancerous; invasive tumor media (bacteria) nutrient source meiosis cell division that forms eggs or sperm melanocytes pigmented cells meta-analysis analysis of combined results from multiple clinical trials metabolism chemical reactions within a cell metabolite molecule involved in a metabolic pathway metaphase stage in mitosis at which chromosomes are aligned along the cell equator metastasis breaking away of cancerous cells from the initial tumor metastatic cancerous cells broken away from the initial tumor methylate add a methyl group to methylated a methyl group, CH3, added methylatior addition of a methyl group, CH3 microcephaly reduced head size microliters one thousandth of a milliliter micrometer 1/1000 meter microsatellites small repetitive DNA elements dispersed throughout the genome microtubule protein strands within the cell, part of the cytoskeleton miscegenation racial mixing mitochondria energy-producing cell organelle mitogen a substance that stimulates mitosis mitosis separation of replicated chromosomes molecular hybridization base-pairing among DNAs or RNAs of different origins molecular systematics the analysis of DNA and other molecules to determine evolutionary relationships monoclonal antibodies immune system proteins derived from a single B cell monosomy gamete that is missing a chromosome monozygotic genetically identical morphologically related to shape and form morphology related to shape and form mRNA messenger RNA mucoid having the properties of mucous mucosa outer covering designed to secrete mucus, often found lining cavities and internal surfaces mucous membranes nasal passages, gut lining, and other moist surfaces lining the body

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