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phenotype observable characteristics of an organism phenotypic related to the observable characteristics of an organism pheromone molecule released by one organism to influence another organism's behavior phosphate group PO4 group, whose presence or absence often regulates protein action phosphodiester bond the link between two nucleotides in DNA or RNA

phosphorylating addition of phosphate group (PO4)

phosphorylation addition of the phosphate group PO43-

phylogenetic related to the evolutionary development of a species phylogeneticists scientists who study the evolutionary development of a species phylogeny the evolutionary development of a species plasma membrane outer membrane of the cell plasmid a small ring of DNA found in many bacteria plastid plant cell organelle, including the chloroplast pleiotropy genetic phenomenon in which alteration of one gene leads to many phenotypic effects point mutation gain, loss, or change of one to several nucleotides in DNA

i polar partially charged, and usually soluble in water pollen male plant sexual organ polymer molecule composed of many similar parts polymerase enzyme complex that synthesizes DNA or RNA from individual nucleotides polymerization linking together of similar parts to form a polymer polymerize to link together similar parts to form a polymer polymers molecules composed of many similar parts polymorphic occurring in several forms polymorphism DNA sequence variant polypeptide chain of amino acids polyploidy presence of multiple copies of the normal chromosome set population studies collection and analysis of data from large numbers of people in a population, possibly including related individuals positional cloning the use of polymorphic genetic markers ever closer to the unknown gene to track its inheritance in CF families posterior rear

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prebiotic before the origin of life precursor a substance from which another is made prevalence frequency of a disease or condition in a population primary sequence the sequence of amino acids in a protein; also called primary structure primate the animal order including humans, apes, and monkeys primer short nucleotide sequence that helps begin DNA replication primordial soup hypothesized prebiotic environment rich in life's building blocks probe molecule used to locate another molecule procarcinogen substance that can be converted into a carcinogen, or cancer-causing substance procreation reproduction progeny offspring prokaryote a single-celled organism without a nucleus promoter DNA sequence to which RNA polymerase binds to begin transcription promutagen substance that, when altered, can cause mutations pronuclei egg and sperm nuclei before they fuse during fertilization proprietary exclusively owned; private proteomic derived from the study of the full range of proteins expressed by a living cell proteomics the study of the full range of proteins expressed by a living cell protists single-celled organisms with cell nuclei protocol laboratory procedure protonated possessing excess H+ ions; acidic pyrophosphate free phosphate group in solution quiescent non-dividing radiation high energy particles or waves capable of damaging DNA, including X rays and gamma rays recessive requiring the presence of two alleles to control the phenotype recombinant DNA DNA formed by combining segments of DNA, usually from different types of organisms recombining exchanging genetic material replication duplication of DNA

restriction enzyme an enzyme that cuts DNA at a particular sequence

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