gonads testes or ovaries gametes reproductive cells, such as sperm or egg percent normal T-lymphocytes. Learning from these gene therapy experiences, French researchers modified the procedure. In 2000 they reported successful gene therapy for two infants with SCID-X1. The patients had left the hospital and its protective isolation after a three-month stay. Ten months after gene therapy, they remained healthy, with normal levels of B- and T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Thus SCID continues to define the current state of the art for gene therapy, exposing its limitations while simultaneously pointing to its eventual success. see also Embryonic Stem Cells; Gene Therapy; HIV; Immune System Genetics; Rodent Models; Signal Transduction.

Diane C. Rein


Fischer, Alain. "Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases: An Experimental Model for Molecular Medicine." Lancet 357, no. 9271 (2001): 1863-1869.

Fischer, Alain, et al. "Gene Therapy for Human Severe Combined Immunodeficiencies." Immunity 15 (2001): 1-4.

Leonard, Warren J. "X-linked Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: From Molecular Cause to Gene Therapy within Seven Years." Molecular Medicine Today 6, no. 10 (2000): 403-407.

Wheelwright, J. "Body, Cure Thyself." Discover 23, no. 2 (2002): 62-68.

Sex Determination

Sex determination refers to the mechanisms employed by organisms to produce offspring that are of two different sexes. First we present an overview of the sex determination mechanisms used by mammals. Then we discuss the great variety of mechanisms used by animals other than mammals.

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