Ethical Issues

From the very beginning of the Human Genome Project, many from both the scientific and public sector have been concerned with ethical issues raised by the research. These issues include preserving the confidentiality of an individual's DNA information and avoiding the stigmatization of individuals who carry certain genes. Some fear that insurers will deny coverage for "preexisting" conditions to people carrying a gene that predisposes them to particular diseases, or that employers might start demanding genetic testing of job applicants.

There are also concerns that prenatal genetic testing could lead to genetic manipulation or a decision to abort based on undesirable traits disclosed by the tests. In addition, some raise concerns that a full knowledge of the human genome could raise profound psychological issues. For example, individuals who know that they carry detrimental genes may find the knowledge to be too great a burden to bear. All of these ethical issues will ultimately have to be addressed by society as a whole. see also Automated Sequencer; Bioinformatics; Cancer; Cloning Genes; Genome; Genomics; Genomics Industry; Model Organisms; Muller, Hermann; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Polymorphisms; Repetitive DNA Elements; Sequencing DNA; Watson, James; Yeast.

Ralph R. Meyer

Bibliography

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Cook-Deegan, Robert. The Gene Wars: Science, Politics and the Human Genome Project. New York: Norton, 1994.

Davies, Kevin. Cracking the Genome: Inside the Race to Unlock Human DNA. New York: Free Press, 2001.

Ezzell, Carol. "Special Report: Beyond the Human Genome Project." Scientific American 283, no. 1 (2000): 64-69.

Kevles, Daniel J., and Leroy Hood, eds. The Code of Codes: Scientific and Social Issues in the Human Genome Project. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992.

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Science. "The Human Genome." Special Issue 291 (Feb. 16, 2001): 1145-1434.

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