Fundamental to the myriad of genomic research efforts in operation around the world is the mapping and sequencing of whole genomes. The entire genomes of more than seventy organisms had been completed by early 2002, including the working drafts of the human genome, first published in 2001. The successful completion of the sequencing of these genomes was made possible in part by companies developing and utilizing new technologies and processes to increase the speed and accuracy of mapping and sequencing. This effort has also spawned entire new fields that aim, in various ways, to capitalize on genomics and identify disease-causing genes and new therapeutic strategies.
The advent of the global Human Genome Project in 1989 provided significant, additional incentive for the development of a variety of new genomics-based companies. These companies can be loosely divided into seven major types: large-scale sequencing companies, gene mining companies, functional genomics companies, population-based genomics companies, bioinformatics companies, established pharmaceutical companies, and new biopharmaceutical companies. These are general distinctions and are not absolute, since many companies are blending and using a variety of these technologies with overlapping applications.
genomes the total genetic material in cells or organisms a, a bioinformatics use of information technology to analyze biological data
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